Academic journal article Journal of Research in Educational Sciences

General Considerations regarding the Scientific Research

Academic journal article Journal of Research in Educational Sciences

General Considerations regarding the Scientific Research

Article excerpt

Introduction

The history of scientific research represents a recent preoccupation. In this way, the critical approach appeared as soon as certain scientific acquirements were gathered, which brought up the necessity of the selection, as well as the introduction of these in the scientific corpus. It (i.e. scientific research) was introduced relatively recently in the sphere of science in the actual shape, as well as in the life of the society, by imposing itself gradually, with difficulty, but ending up by integrating well in the life and civilization of the society (Enăchescu 2005, 17).

Research is a rigorous initiative which aims at identifying certain answers which need investigations in the real environment. It tends to discover the law, the principle of the explanation. Thus, we may define research as a sort of scientific and systematic „quest" for necessary information regarding a certain topic.

Scientific research is a sustained attempt to identify the truth with the help of the study, observation, comparison and experiment, consisting mainly of four phases: defining and redefining the issues; formulating a hypothesis; suggesting certain solutions; collecting, organizing and assessing the data; deduction and drawing conclusions; testing the conclusions in order to determine if they correspond to the formulated hypothesis. When it becomes an academic activity, the term of „research" is used in a technical sense and it distinguishes from the simple practitioner's circumstantial exploration (N'Da 2015, 17)

1. The objectives of scientific research

Each research study has a specific purpose, consisting of identifying the answers to certain answers, by applying scientific procedures. The main objective of the research resides in revealing the hidden truth, in other words which has not been discovered yet. Parts of truth are hidden behind objects, deeds, behaviors and attitudes, events, phenomena and social practices, etc. In order to make them manifest themselves, the researcher starts from a supposition or hypothesis and in order to get to the discovery of the truth, goes through an entire cycle of rigorous, methodic operations. The researcher is the one who has to be rigorous in observing the phenomena he studies as well as in analyzing and interpreting the data, facts or ideas exploration (N'Da 2015, 17).

The researcher mobilizes his entire attention towards gathering new knowledge, putting between brackets what he thought he knew until then. In other words, he moves away from the way in which he used to think, see, raise issues or make observations. Now it is the moment for him to define the hypothesis, by putting them in relation with the concepts, variables. The hypotheses are firstly subject to the facts test, are tested with the help of the research tools. For instance, the researcher may issue grids and use them to observe the interactions from a classroom, may perform an analysis of the manuals, may survey opinions, etc.

Depending on his objectives, the research may be classified in:

* research studies regarding the familiarization with a phenomenon or obtaining new perspective on it (we are talking in this case of exploratory or formative studies)

* research studies regarding the exact description of the characteristics of a certain individual, situations or group (we are talking here about descriptive studies)

research studies regarding the determination of the frequency with which something occurs or is associated with something else (we are talking in this case about diagnosis studies)

* research studies regarding the testing of a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (they are called studies regarding the testing of the hypothesis)

When we decide to leave ourselves caught in the work of a scientific research, we have various reasons. Some of us aim at reaching a certain degree in research and enjoy its benefits. Some others want to face the challenge and resolve some unresolved issues. …

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