Academic journal article Journal of Research in Educational Sciences

Main Areas of the Implementation of Multiculturalism in Professional Educator Training in the USA

Academic journal article Journal of Research in Educational Sciences

Main Areas of the Implementation of Multiculturalism in Professional Educator Training in the USA

Article excerpt

Introduction

The state of culture and society is determined by the structural and content features of the education system. In other words, every nation has the educational system that corresponds to the state of its culture and society, to the needs of its self-preservation and development. Therefore, it is important to address the social and political conditions that influenced the formation and development of multicultural education in the United States.

Analysis of literature on multicultural education allows to single out a significant number of studies devoted to teacher training. Efforts aimed at making teacher education multicultural, and, consequently, responsive to requirements of the multicultural environment of an educational institution and society as a whole, through government policy, reforming educational programs, selecting students and teachers, various organizational changes in the work of higher education establishments, are reflected in works of a number of American and Canadian scholars (Allen 1988, Altbach 1991, Avery 1993, Bennet 1999).

The objective of the article is to analyze the scientific works of American and Canadian scientists published in the 1990s and 2000s, which contain the results of conceptual and empirical studies that have not been disclosed to the present day in the domestic press.

1.Main text

As analysis of literature showed, the beginning of the XXI century can be considered the most successful and, at the same time, the most difficult period for the multicultural teacher training (Bakhov 2015, Cochran-Smith 2001, Fenstermacher 2001, Gordon 2006)

On the one hand, it was time of hope, a period of increased attention to issues of ethnocultural diversity of the learning environment. For example, during his election campaign, George Bush said that "no student should be left unattended," emphasizing the responsibility of the American education system for increasing the achievement of each student (Cochran-Smith 1995).

Let us note another positive moment: despite the fact that North American national professional organizations did not address problems of multicultural education until the 1970s, all major national organizations involved in the accreditation of teacher training programs, licensing and issuance of professional advancement certificates, had at the time clear requirements for the competence of a teacher to work with multiethnic and multicultural students (National 1997).

According to a study by D. Gollnick, published in 1995 with the title "National and State Initiatives for Multicultural Education", by 1993, 16 out of the 17 national curriculum standards in the USA approved by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) contained multicultural principles, and in 40 states, bilingual education and compulsory study of the culture of ethnic groups were introduced into middle school curriculums and teacher training programs (Bakhov 2013, Gollnick 2006).

Research by G. Ladson-Billings and K. Zeichner also confirms that almost throughout the country, teacher training programs at colleges and universities, curriculums and policies of educational institutions by the early 1990s were reviewed for attention to the diversity of the ethnic composition of students and teachers and reflected the main requirements of the goals and objectives of multicultural education (Ladson-Billings 1995).

Positive moments of this period without doubt include the rich theoretical knowledge of the key issues of multicultural education, including teacher training, accumulated by American and Canadian scholars, compared with the 1970s-1980s, when theorists noted significant lack of works on these issues (Banks 2000, Banks 2006, Sleeter 2001).

The fact that the number of Americans of color among schoolteachers, students, and college teachers increased is also indicative of progress during this period in the field of multicultural education. …

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