Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Time Trend, Age and Sex Distribution of Deaths from Diabetes Mellitus at the Regional Level in the Slovak Republic

Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Time Trend, Age and Sex Distribution of Deaths from Diabetes Mellitus at the Regional Level in the Slovak Republic

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Some diseases have occurred breakthroughs, which meant a major turning point in the treatment of the diseases and their preventions. Unfortunately, other diseases are still resistant. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has overcome enormous development of knowledge, from the explanation of the mechanism to various therapeutic approaches and technologies. New findings bring further questions, opens up the need for further investigation and lead to doubts (1, 2).

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which results in high morbidity, disability and mortality. The number of diabetics in the world is growing, which brings serious problems not only in terms of health care, but also from the economic point of view (2, 3). Therefore, diabetes mellitus is known as epidemic in the 21st century all around the world and its increase in population is alarming. According to statistical data, it occurred over the last 20 years to a doubling number of registered diabetics in developed countries (3-6).

According to the International Diabetes Federation, 409,200 cases of diabetes mellitus were registered at diabetic ambulances in Slovakia in 2015 (7-9). In the long-time approach, the number of diabetics in Slovak population as well as in other countries is growing. Most diabetics are registered at medical facilities in Bratislava region (a total of 54,285 persons), minimum in Žilina region (32,262 people) in 2015 (10). If the V4 countries are taken into consideration, a high number of people suffering from diabetes prevail in the Czech Republic. According to the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic, almost 862,000 patients were treated from diabetes mellitus in 2013 in the Czech Republic (11). However, in 2015 there were more than 799.300 cases of diabetes (12). In Hungary, 694,700 cases of diabetes were recorded (13) and in Poland over 2.2 million cases in 2015 (14).

Diabetes Mellitus by Sex and Age

There are some studies that confirm increasing mortality from diabetes mellitus with age and varying by sex. Roper et al. (15) found out that life expectancy both of men and women diagnosed at the age of 40, is reduced by 8 years in people without diabetes, but in case of women the number may be even lower. Similarly, both sexes with diabetes have shown higher mortality than people without diabetes, while level of mortality by diabetes depends on the studied region.

Population mortality due to diabetes mellitus varies according to age. The human and economic impact of diabetes is huge for all ages, especially with regard to elderly people. Generally, every year approximately 4.6 million of citizens die because of this disease and half of those people are over 60 years. This is one of the reasons why diabetes mellitus belongs to the top ten causes of disability worldwide. In this time, the diabetes epidemic and the ageing effect around the world are growing faster (15-17).

In many developed countries, diabetes differs by gender where number of incidence of diabetes is comparable to the average values observed worldwide (5, 18, 19) and indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender gap into account when developing policies in the field of public health (18).

Type 2 diabetes represents the highest share, approximately 90%, within a diabetic syndrome. Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 5-7% of the population of developed region, while 60-80% of these patients are also overweight and obese. Negative is the lack of exercise, thus inactivity (3, 17). According to recent study of Scotland, incidence of type 2 diabetes has stabilized in recent years (21). On the other hand, Harjutsalo et al. (17) emphasized that despite considerable advances in diabetes care, type 1 diabetes is still associated with serious premature mortality resulting from acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Prevention of diabetes remains important and significant, in particular among socio-economically deprived populations. …

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