Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Risk of Dying from Cancer by Socio-Demographic Indicators in the Slovak Republic

Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Risk of Dying from Cancer by Socio-Demographic Indicators in the Slovak Republic

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Oncology is a clinical branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It focuses not only on the physical and mental functioning of humans, but also on social, family and environmental factors. The possibility of more effective treatment results from the understanding of the causes of cancer. Knowledge of the incidence of neoplasms in a certain geographic area, specific age group, or gender is a key issue, for example, in the case of adolescents when the occurrence of other cancer types compared with the elderly may occur (1).

In the Slovak Republic, two special medical centers are engaged in total diagnostics and treatment of patients suffering from cancer: The National Cancer Institute in Košice and St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute Hospital in Bratislava. Likewise, 73 regional hospitals operate oncology clinics for the treatment of neoplasms of adult patients. Comprehensive diagnostics and treatment of malignant neoplasms in children are engaged in the Clinic of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology in Bratislava, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology in Children's Faculty Hospital of Košice, and Clinic of pediatric hematology and oncology in Banská Bystrica. Reporting cancer patients is established as obligatory and patients' long-term records are provided by National Cancer Registry of the Slovak Republic, which encourages a lifetime, long-term evidence of cancer patients from the Slovak Republic (2).

Incidence, Survival and Cancer Mortality

The consideration of incidence, survival and mortality rates together with monitoring geographical variation are important starting points for cancer epidemiology (3).

Data on cancer incidence in Slovakia are published annually by the National Cancer Registry of the Slovak Republic. The latest available data is from 2009 (4). The incidence rates in 2009 indicate increase of cancer cases for both sexes, but mainly among females. While in 2008 there were reported 30,144 new cancer cases (15,055 of males and 15,089 of females), in 2009 the total number of registered cases reached 31,466 new cancer cases (15,708 of males and 15,758 of females). This rapid increase and large occurrence in males is caused mainly by colorectal, lung and prostate cancers. In females, the dramatic increase of the overall number of cancer cases was primarily caused by breast cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, female genital organs, colorectal and lung cancers (4). According to the GLOBOCAN project, in 2012 estimated cancer incidence for all ages and both sexes excluding non melanoma skin cancer is 24,045 of cancer cases in Slovakia (5).

Research Group EUROCARE 5 (6) processes data on a survival of target groups in European countries. These results confirmed that the long-term survival of young people aged 15-44 years on cancer diseases in Slovakia is lower than the European average, even as in the Czech Republic considering time period of diagnosis 2000-2007. The 5-year cumulative relative survival rate for all cancer types in Slovakia reached 69% compared to 76% in the Czech Republic, and an average of 76% in Europe. The biggest difference between the Slovak and Czech Republic was detected in cancer of the salivary glands (64% vs. 86%) and hypopharynx (14% vs. 34%).

Recent available data documents that cancers were responsible for the second largest proportion of non-communicable diseases mortality rate (21.7%) worldwide (7). Among men, the three most common sites of cancer mortality observed were lung (23.6%), liver (11.2%), and stomach (10.1%), comparing with breast (14.7%), lung (13.8%), and colorectum (9.0%) among women (3). In Slovakia, deaths for cancer represent the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. In 2014, total deaths from cancer accounted for 13.628 number of dead, what means 167 cases more than in 2013, and about 706 cases more than in 2012. In 2011, it was 13.030 cancer deaths (8). According to the OECD (9), the average crude mortality rate across OECD countries was 205 per 100,000 of persons, while Slovakia reported the third worst mortality rate 247 per 100,000 of inhabitants among OECD countries in 2013. …

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