Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates of Neoplastic and Circulatory Diseases and Their Demographic Factors in Slovak Regions during 1996-2013

Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates of Neoplastic and Circulatory Diseases and Their Demographic Factors in Slovak Regions during 1996-2013

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Mortality is a reliable picture of public health (1). It's also the most accurate way to measure health (2). It is generally believed that the most important causes of death also have the sharpest social slope (3). The basic prerequisite for research of disparities in mortality is that the disparity results from social assumptions that are not biologically set (4). Although it cannot be ruled out that social differences in mortality could have a biological foundation, they are developing through social mechanisms and social environment. Socioeconomic differences in mortality were historically the lowest in the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The greatest differences in mortality were in France, Italy, the US and Finland. Despite the very high level of social inequality in the US, this country does not have higher differences in mortality compared to the countries where this disparity was minimal (5). According to the results of several research studies, on average, women have worse health than men, though expectations of higher life expectancy of women are higher among women (6-8). Some experts point to the importance of social differences between men and their impact on mortality (9, 10), while Klein (11) indicates that in the lowest social class, there are no gender differences in mortality. Reasons of physical handicaps of women are not known yet. As the main biological differences are set - different phy sical conditions and health and mortality traj ectories (12, 13). In general, women exhibit better health behaviour (14). The differences in mortality between the sexes arise from the interplay of physiological, psychological and behavioural differences. Klein (11) in his study reported that higher mortality in men is due to different physical structure than women and more stressful role in society. Bassuk et al. (15) reported that in men education, income and occupational prestige are significant predictors of mortality, while women only the income has a particularly important role. Lampert (16) in his research studies found that gender differences between the sexes can be seen also at work, health status and health behaviour. Health behaviour, attitudes, habits and etc. are connected to the material sources of an individual. The most commonly examined factors of health behaviour studied in epidemiology include smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and physical activity. Some psychosocial factors used in the literature as a relative social status, integration, stress and etc. are difficult to measure and have complex concepts explaining their impact on mortality. It also causes problems with the unification of the results from these trials. Beckett (17) argues that social support and stress factors are more important determinants of health than traditional risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity). These factors create a relationship between socioeconomic status, health and mortality (18).

These mentioned research studies confirm significant heterogeneity in the results, as well as the complexity in explicitly defining the trajectories of the impact of various factors on mortality. This is due to different target orientation of many research teams' research studies in pursuit of psychological, social, economic, medical aspects in the development of mortality. Much more clearly can be seen the results of research studies when examining the impact of gender and age, as core variables affecting differences in mortality of individual groups of diseases. When examining mortality from cardiovascular disease, numerous research teams link the gender difference in mortality with socio-economic status (19-21) or concentrate on major risk factors (22-24).

It is well known fact that more than three fourths of deaths in Slovakia are caused by diseases from Chapter II (neoplasms, C00D48, ICD - International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) or from Chapter IX (circulatory system diseases I00-I99). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.