Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Legal Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources Usage

Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Legal Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources Usage

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Kazakhstan is one of the world leaders in diversity and number of mineral resources. As oil, gas, coal and other mineral deposits are most important components for the state economy and the regulation in these spheres is rather elaborated, the government historically paid less attention to the development of the alternative energy sources. For example, nowadays the majority of the electrical power plants in Kazakhstan are fired by natural gas, coal and oilproducts.

The main direction of the state policy in Kazakhstan will become organization and holding of 'EXPO-2017' in Astana as part of the suggested topic 'Energy of the Future' which is focused on the ways of seeking quality changes in energetics, including first of all development of alternative energy sources and new ways of its transportation. Its name and content almost coincides with the name and recommendations of the report of the United Nations SecretaryGeneral Consultative Group on Energetics and Climate Change 'Energy for Sustainable Development' (Expo 2017: Energy of the Future). One of the prioritized directions of electricity development and solution of environmental problems of Kazakhstan is currently use of renewable energy resources and implementation of the programs of energy and resource-saving. (Strategy 'Kazakhstan-2050').

In accordance with the Strategic Plan of the RK Development up to 2020 the share of RES in the total volume of electricity consumption should amount to 1.5% by 2015 and over 3% by 2020. The share of use of alternative energy sources in the total volume of electricity consumption is less than 1%. Considering the necessity of the environmental problems solution, one of the prioritized directions of the electricity development will become use of renewable energy resources (hydro-energy, wind and solar energy), unused potential of which is quite significant in Kazakhstan (Strategic Plan of Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020, 2010).

Significant investments into electro energetics amounted to 50 bn USD by 2030 and about 100 bn USD by 2050 will allow creating the employment opportunities for people with scientific, engineering, technical and constructing specializations. Significant share of these investments up to 50% will fall at alternative energy sources, so new jobs will be created in the high-technology sector of renewable energetics.

The potential of hydro-energetics in Kazakhstan is about 30 bn kWh/year. Exactly this direction is being currently developed most actively in our country. The reason, except for natural potential, is relatively low cost of electricity generated by a hydro-electric power plant. Is amounts to about 11-14 tenge/kW. Speaking about the natural potential of hydro energetics one may note that the most favorable conditions for construction of a hydro-electric power plant can be found at the rivers of Southern Kazakhstan. But in general out of 2000 rivers of the republic about 5%, i.e., about 100 rivers are suitable for construction of small hydro-electric power plants. Natural and geographic location of Kazakhstan provides wide opportunities for generation of solar energetics. The potential of solar energy approaches about 2500-3000 solar hours a year, while the energy of solar irradiation is equal to 1.300-1.800 kW/m2/year.

The objective of the research is study of legal aspects of use and development of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Kazakhstan and definition of the position and role of renewable energy sources in the legal system. Through investigation of the drawbacks of legal provision the conceptual conclusions for improvement and elimination of the barriers in the development of 'green energy' will be made.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Scientific problems of state and legal regulation of renewable energy sources are considered by the scientists in various branches of the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign countries. One of the active scientific researchers is a western scholar Adrian Bradbrook (Bradbrook and Wawryk, 2002). …

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