Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Relationship of Fathers' Parenting Style with Secondary School Students' Anti Social Behaviour

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Relationship of Fathers' Parenting Style with Secondary School Students' Anti Social Behaviour

Article excerpt

Background of the Study

Parents have been bestowed due respect in Islam. Quran' o Sunnah bequeaths luminous codes in this phenomenon. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) said, "No child is born but upon Fitra (as a Muslim). It is her parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Polytheist" (The Hadith, n.d). It is historically evident that since the inception of mankind, the parents remained the major source of training and guidance of their kids. This mode of training and educating to their children is called Parenting style. As Johnson (2012) defined that parenting style are those strategies which one uses in child rearing. Similarly, Akhtar (2012) stated that it is a flexible construct having plethora of techniques accorded by parents to rear their children. It is universal phenomenon that usually fathers are unaware of the effects of their parenting style on children's behaviour. The choice of parenting style heavily influenced the personal experiences of a child, perception of father role, popular beliefs and socioeconomic status of a person (Kopko, 2007).

Parenting style is the mouth word of theorists and practitioners since long time ago. As Baumrind (1966) classified parenting style into three types i.e. authoritarian, permissive and authoritative (Basirion, Majid, & Jelas, 2014). As for as authoritarian parenting style (ATS) is concerned, it is a parents centered approach (Coplan, Hastings, Lagacé-Séguin, & Moulton, 2002) based on belief that parents are the authority and emphasizes on submission and compliance from children (Geeraert, Van den Noortgate, Grietens, & Onghena, 2004). The authoritarian fathers have clear expectations and more control over their children. They do not give explanations for their acts. They use reward and punishment as a disciplinary technique and enforce rules (Baumrind, 1967). They are not responsive to the needs of their children. They do not allow their young ones to take decisions. Resultantly, the children of authoritarian fathers learn early how to please their parents (Burt & Donnellan, 2009). They are highly demanding but not responsive to their children's needs (Hoskins, 2014). Moreover, Darling (1999) reported two categories of authoritarian fathers i.e. authoritarian-directive and autocratic. Autocratic fathers are more intrusive as compared to authoritarian directive ones.

The second type of parenting style is permissive. The permissive father does not disturb his child's activities. He gives them full freedom without any responsibility. He behaves like friend not an authority. He is afraid of imposing limits because his children would dislike him. His only goal is to make his children feel happy (Schaffer, Clark, & Jeglic, 2009).

The third type is Authoritative Parenting Style (APS) which is characterized as high on both demandingness and responsiveness scale (Hoskins, 2014). APS is a childcentered approach and typically identified with concerted cultivation parenting style (Cheadle, 2008). Authoritative fathers encourage their children to take decisions and face the consequences of their choices. They are warm and involve with their children. Baumrind (1991) favoured APS out of the three styles because the best of authoritarian i.e. demandingness and the best of permissive style i.e. responsiveness are both present in this style. APS offers balance between freedom and responsibility as parents give reasons for their acts (Hoeve et al., 2008).

Additionally, Maccoby and Martin (1983) further expanded Baumrinds' (1971) theory by introducing Uninvolved Parenting Style (UPS). Hoskins (2014) argued that uninvolved fathers are neither responsive nor demanding. Tiller (2002) observed that UPS is least researched parenting style because uninvolved fathers are not cooperative enough to participate in study. Uninvolved fathers remain unaware of their children's activities. Walker and Smreker (2002) claimed that there are many reasons behind this kind of parenting style. …

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