Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Global Changes and Improving Teacher Education Institutions in Pakistan

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Global Changes and Improving Teacher Education Institutions in Pakistan

Article excerpt

Introduction

The year 2009 is a special year in the history of Teacher Education in Pakistan because two major steps were taken to uplift teacher education programs i.e. four-year B.Ed. the program was introduced and National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) in Pakistan were documented and disseminated. Like medical and engineering, the duration of the teaching profession has been increased to enable the new entrants to get training and long experience during studies. All existing programs of teacher education were of one or two years. Those students may take admission in four-year programs of teacher education, which would like to adopt and stay in the teaching profession and would like to develop themselves according to the future needs of the profession.

National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) in Pakistan have provided a roadmap for institutions and teacher educators to further improve the performance, output, and quality of their functioning. In view of this context, it was necessary to study trends and developments in teacher education to identify the weak areas and gaps between the present and the expected statuses of the profession.

Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs) are working to educate prospective teachers across the country. The quality of the prospective teachers and their competence can be assessed, both directly and indirectly. Prospective teachers can be assessed through standardized tests or classroom performance. The competencies they acquire during teaching practices and learning can be reviewed and evaluated in the context of national and international standards for teacher education. In this study, programs offered by TEIs were evaluated on the components of curriculum development Process, Course and Content, Course Transaction and Classroom Management, Teaching Learning Procedures and Methods, and Teaching Practice.

Literature Review

The role of curriculum in teaching and learning process is vital. It keeps teachers on the track, on one side, and on the other side motivates them to progress and explore new destinations. It provides guidelines for preparing and training of prospective teachers. Curriculum and curriculum development are major concerns of both educators and the government and both have an impact on the development of the community and its prosperity. The curriculum is viewed more than before, as the centre of daily life (DeConinck, 2008). Initially, curriculum is planned and developed with the cooperation of curriculum and subject experts with its alignment to the government policies and planes. All stakeholders are involved for improvements and necessary changes.

In contemporary curriculum process key, stakeholders should be engaged for recommendations (UNESCO, 2009). The stakeholders may vary from discipline to discipline or country to country but for teacher education especially in Pakistan, the maj or stakeholders of the curriculum are teacher educators, alumni, employers of teachers and representatives of the society. Views of different stakeholders help to improve the curriculum in different dimensions and make its implementation feasible and closer to the attainment of the objectives. The curriculum is developed for teacher educators' facilitation. Teacher educators disseminate the knowledge and develop skills among prospective teachers. Having such an important position, their experience and feedback can help to reform the curriculum. In short, teacher educators provide opportunities for learning the essential knowledge and offer avenues to improve the required skills (Churyk & Yu. 2015). The alumni are incredible assets ofthe institutions and emotionally attached to their institutions. They are always willing to work for improvements in their institutions and its programs on the basis of their experience (Churyk & Yu. 2015).

The reforms or changes in the curriculum is a time consuming, costly, sensitive and continues our process. …

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