Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Urban Tourism Development for Bandung City, Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Urban Tourism Development for Bandung City, Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

Article excerpt

1.INTRODUCTION

The attention paid to urban tourism is growing rapidly from researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the direction of carefully reconsider the nature, distinctive role, and connections of tourism within the framework of urban economies. Tourism is undergoing fundamental changes regarding the market, industry structure, and the product or service offered from it. Motivations and preferences in experiencing a destination have been changing and proliferating in number and range, thereby challenging conventional models of tourism management and planning (Wardhani, 2012). Digital technologies and the Internet are part of the picture since they play an increasingly important role in the dissemination of the shifting phenomenon. Likewise, cities as the prominent geographical asset of tourism are constantly changing on a mission to fully accommodate the needs of incoming tourists (Jayne, 2006 ). The premises on preference shift (Wardhani, 2012) and emergence of city features reinforced the alleged relationship between the tourism industry and the urban dynamics, so called urban tourism (Spirou, 2011). There are three important aspects to consider in urban tourism concept. First, the supply of tourism facilities in urban areas such as the availability of hotels, restaurants, shopping, attractions, travel agents, nightlife and other tourist-related supporting facility services (Morrison, 2014) (Kolb, 2006; Jensen-Verbeke, 1986). Then, urban tourism needs to accommodate the demand from various demographic classes, with diverse motives, patterns, and behaviour (Zatori, 2013). The last aspect rises from the governance perspective where government, associations, and other authorities interested in urban tourism (Scott & Cooper, 2010) co-create a comprehensive policy to sustain a tourism ecosystem (Mathis, Kim, Uysal, Sirgy, & Prebensen, 2016).

The same force of modernization also transforms Bandung from cultural-historical tourism destination into shopping-culinary urban tourism. This transformation enthrones tourism sector as the major contributor of total revenue of Bandung city, e.g. 48% of the 2010 total revenue (Department of Cultural and Tourism of Bandung City, 2012). However, there is inconvenient fact that the number of tourists in Bandung grows with declining rate. In 2013 there was 5.5% increase of the number of domestic tourists visited Bandung while in 2016 the increase was below 2% (Department of Cultural and Tourism of Bandung City, 2016). This progression may be related to the dynamics of tourist demand which was not well-handled. In this context, tourist experience becomes influencing factor of tourist demand. The tourist experience is the culmination of a given experience which can be influenced by individual, environmental, situational and personality-related factors as well as the degree of communication with other people. The experience positively impact perception and perceived value (Lee & Mills, 2010) and also satisfaction (Walter, Cleff, & Chu, 2013). The link between experience and revisit intentions to tourism attractions (Hosany & Witham, 2010; Hsu & Crotts, 2006; Gnoth, 1997). Positive tourism experiences are essential determinants of post-trip tourist behaviour.

This issue on the dynamics of experience in urban tourism is mostly appropriate handled using microlensed modelling and simulation method, for instance agent-based simulation that involves tourists as agent with different characteristics and behaviour (Johnson, 2009). Johnson (2009) also pointed the emerging properties are best captured from the simulation acting as insightful direction to construct the strategy in developing tourism sectors especially for urban tourism policy. As the preliminary step of this agent-based study, this study aims to understand the characteristics of Bandung urban tourists and their behaviour through questionnaire-based survey. The survey result is then analysed using factor analysis to pronounce the preference in a more context-rich setting and cluster analysis to categorize the demographic profile of the incoming tourists as the segmentation strategy for the city. …

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