Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

The Relationship between Workload and Students' Disruptive Behaviours with Turnover Intention among Academicians of Private Higher Education Institutions: Boredom at Workplace as Mediator

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

The Relationship between Workload and Students' Disruptive Behaviours with Turnover Intention among Academicians of Private Higher Education Institutions: Boredom at Workplace as Mediator

Article excerpt

1.INTRODUCTION

In the past, academic career is associated with low stress, less workload and flexible working hour (Fisher, 1994). Due to globalization, this profession has become more stressful and demanding because the academicians are required to produce the "best brain" to meet the market demand. According to Jaschik (2013), academicians exert high job demands such as teaching, research, grant sourcing, publication, student consultation and administrative works. Student disruptive behaviour also increases the job demands on these academicians (Chang, 2009). Previous literatures has highlighted that academic career involves job burnout (Shuster & Finkelstein, 2006; Nobile & McCormick, 2007) that is likely to cause higher turnover intention and absenteeism (De Croom, Sluiter, Blonk, Broersen & Frings-Dresen, 2004). Nevertheless, no known study has been carried out to investigate the relationship between boredom and turnover thoroughly. Bored academicians always feel inactive and unpleasant than those burned-out (Reijseger et al., 2013). Undoubtedtly, boredom can lead to health problems (Harju, Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2014), low job performance (Watt & Hargis, 2010), low job satisfaction (Spector & Fox, 2010), negative emotions (Culp, 2006), poor attendance (Wan, Downey & Stough, 2014), negative well-beings (Loukidou, Loan-Clarke, & Daniels, 2009), frequent turnover intentions (Reijseger et al., 2013) and monetary losses (Eddy, D'Abate & Thurston Jr, 2010). In response to this issue, two questions have been proposed. The first question is: 'What causes boredom among academicians?' while the second question is 'How is boredom related to turnover intention among academicians?'.

In consonance with JD-R theory, employees' well-being is regulated by the disparity of job demands and resources at workplace that closely connected to the employees' performance outcomes via two fairly independent psychological processes namely health impairment and motivational process (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Health impairment process requires employees to continuously invest high physical and psychological efforts (job demands) into their job where in long run, resulting negative outcomes (Bakker, Demerouti & Schaufeli, 2003; Hakanen, Bakker & Schaufeli, 2006). Motivational process is a series of motivation to encourage employees to work for enjoyment, improvement and engagement (Bakker et al., 2010) via the fulfilling of intrinsic and extrinsic basic human needs (job resources) (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Past studies have shown that high job demands can result in job burnout (Bakker et al., 2003; Hakanen et al., 2006; Xanthopoulou et al., 2007), in turn lead to poor organizational commitment and turnover intention (Hakanen, Schaufeli, & Ahola, 2008). Besides job burnout, some scholars have also investigated the issue of boredom in organizational context (Reijseger et al., 2013; Guglielmi, Simbula, Mazzetti, Tabanelli & Bonfiglioli, 2013; Van Wyk, De Beer, Pienaar & Schaufeli, 2016). To understand the relationship between boredom and turnover intention, it is important to identify how the antecedents that affect employees' intention to leave. Therefore, the present study examines both direct and indirect effects of workload and student disruptive behaviour on boredom and turnover intention among academicians in Malaysia (see Model 1.0), particularly in Sarawak.

The Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE) development plan has drawn the importance of human capital development. The plan creates 1.6 million new jobs and targeted to achieve a fivefold growth in term of gross domestic product (GDP) amounting RM118 billion by year 2030. PHEIs play a crucial role to supply competent and knowledgeable pool of human capital to fill those jobs. Nevertheless, turnover intention among academicians in Malaysia is critical and it affects the quality of teaching and learning. Factors such as role ambiguity, leadership, job characterics had been investigated to influence turnover intention but none has examine boredom. …

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