Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Designing Effective Field Trip Activities to Develop Students' Cultural Intelligence

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Designing Effective Field Trip Activities to Develop Students' Cultural Intelligence

Article excerpt

1.INTRODUCTION

Providing knowledge and improving the skills of students is an obligation of the university (Ahn & Ettner, 2013). In this globalization era, a person's ability to work in a global environment become an important skill to be acquired (Ahn & Ettner, 2013; Groves & Feyerherm; 2011). One factor that may affect someone performance is intelligence. There are a lot of study related with intelligence. One study that explored the role of intelligence to performance is study related to social intelligence and emotional intelligence (Crowne, 2009; Gardner, 2002; Goleman, 1996). However, many people cannot have a good performance even though they have good emotional intelligence and social intelligence when working in multi-cultural environment (Crowne, 2009). Therefore, it is important to have the ability to be able to work in a multi-cultural environment is one of the important ability to be developed. This ability becomes attention of a lot of business students since in the current business world there is no limitation of location and time so it is most likely that they will do business with people from different countries with different cultural background (Ang & Dyne, 2008; MacNab, 2012). Because of that, many universities in the world, especially business schools become concern with how to develop students' ability to adapt and work in a multi-cultural environment.

Cultural intelligence (CQ) is an intelligence that can be used to predict someone capability to perform when they have to work in multi-cultural environment (Ang et al., 2007; Earley & Mosakowski, 2004). A lot of study already show that CQ has positive relationship with someone performance when deal with multi-cultural context (Lin, Chen, & Song, 2012; Moon, 2013; Scholl, 2009). CQ also has positive correlation with how people may perform in global environment (Urnaut, 2014).

By increasing someone's CQ, it is expected to increase someone performance when they are in multicultural environment (Groves & Feyerherm, 2011; Scholl, 2009). The process to develop someone's CQ through various methods is known as CQ Education (MacNab, 2012). A lot of methods can be done by business schools to improve the ability of students to socialize, adapt and work in a multicultural context. Ranging from providing cross culture related course, bringing foreign professors or practitioners to share experiences, organize field trips to other countries, and other methods (MacNab, 2012; McCrea & Yin, 2012). One common thing that usually be done by business schools are sending students to other countries in the form of field trips (MacNab, 2012). Cross-cultural field trip is an activity in which students are asked to visit a particular country to do certain activities. The purpose of the field trip is usually to provide hands on experience to students. Through this experience, students can develop the ability to adapt and interact with those of the country of destination. However, the effectiveness of this method is greatly influenced by how the field trip is designed.

In cross cultural exchange activities, the students will carry their own culture as they face the demands of adjusting the culture of their host country along with the cultures of people of diverse ethnicity in the academic and social environments Vergara et al (2010). When student encounter difficulties and conflicts as a result of adjusting to unfamiliar social norms and customs of a new culture, this situation is known as acculturative stress. The stressor of the acculturative process such as language, academic, psychosocial and cultural, financial, and political have been found to have significant effects on acculturation (Pan, Wong, Chan, & Joubert, 2008 in Vergara et al, 2010). Moreover, studies on adjustment on acculturative stress have identified the differential effects of various types of coping. Coping in terms of cognitive and behavioral efforts to reduce the negative emotions from stressful events (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). …

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