Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Information

Impact of Job Motivations of Chinese Cultural Traits, Collective Benefit, and Target Awareness on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Government Institutions and Corporate Organizations in Taiwan

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Information

Impact of Job Motivations of Chinese Cultural Traits, Collective Benefit, and Target Awareness on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Government Institutions and Corporate Organizations in Taiwan

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

Job motivations include an individual's reasons for work (individual need), degree of effort (psychological condition), and behavior (results) (Drucker, 1954; Hsu, 2003). Job motivation has been a core issue in the study of social sciences and organizational behavior (Rainey, 2000), and the lengthy history of research on this topic in Western countries has produced an abundance of theories. In Taiwan, studies of job motivation began in the 1970s. Since then, the number of studies has grown to several hundred, but the majority are verifications of Western theories. Unfortunately, few contain new research based on local concepts.

Past studies in Taiwan have emphasized that Chinese culture is heavily influenced by Confucian culture (Hwang, 1988), that it is collective (Traindis, 1995), that the Chinese are relationship- and society-oriented (Ho, 1991; Yang, 1993), and that they have an interdependent, self-construal perspective (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Hsu, 2003). These orientations may impact the psychology and behavior of the Chinese in a number of ways. These include placing priority on collective or group benefits; emphasizing the importance of returning favors (Liu, 1993, 1996, 2001) and a tendency to make decisions based on relationships; requiring "face" or attention to pride; valuing family ethics, with a respect for authority; and exhibiting relation determinism (Hwang, 1988; Ho, 1991; Yang, 1993; Traindis, 1995; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Hsu, 2003).

The results of past studies on job motivation in Chinese culture have shown that relationship needs (RN) and face needs (FN) are concepts unique to the Chinese. When an individual decides to strive toward a goal of collective benefit (CB) or target awareness (TA), these concepts influence the strength and duration of the job (Hsu, 2003). The current study aims to further explore these particular concepts of job motivation in Chinese culture.

Job motivation in Chinese culture tends toward relationships and society, prioritizes collective or group benefits, and is inclined toward relation determinism (Liu, 1993, 1996, 2001; Hwang, 1988; Ho, 1991; Yang, 1993; Traindis, 1995; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Hsu, 2003). These traits encourage an individual to surpass the standards of his or her role in the development of organizational citizenship behavior. Western scholars largely assert that the elements that generate the drive for job motivations include extra work (Patchen, Pelz, & Allen, 1965), team attitude, and organizational acknowledgment (Landy & Guion, 1970), and that all of these elements are the general presentation of organizational citizenship behavior. The current study, therefore, has selected organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) as its result variable because it is closer to job motivations in Chinese culture.

This study asserts that job motivations in Chinese culture are unique in terms of needs regarding relationships and face, with the degree of effort being affected by collective benefit and target awareness, whereas organizational citizenship behavior is closer to Chinese job culture. The current study, therefore, aims to explore the mutual relationships of the variables described above. The specific goals are:

1. Examine relationship needs and face needs and their impact on collective benefit, target awareness, and organizational citizenship behavior in job motivation in Chinese culture

2. Assess collective benefit and target awareness and measure their impact on organizational citizenship behavior

3. Analyze collective benefit in terms of relationship needs or face needs and examine their relationship to organizational citizenship behavior

4. Analyze the relationship between target awareness and both relationship needs and face needs and examine their effect on the relationship to organizational citizenship behavior

5. Develop conclusions based on study results and propose suggestions for related future studies

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