Academic journal article Researchers World

Critical Issues in the Supply Chain Management of Kashmiri Apple: An Exploratory Study

Academic journal article Researchers World

Critical Issues in the Supply Chain Management of Kashmiri Apple: An Exploratory Study

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION:

The Apple (Botanical Name of Apple is malus domestica·) is one of the principal fruits, grown in temperate region of the world. It has colorful appearance, crispy flesh, pleasant flavor and sweet taste that attract the consumers and fetch good price. Apple is a rosaceous fruit tree, belonging to genus Malus and is the most widely grown fruit tree having high economic value. However, growth and vigor are best in rich sandy loams, but apple also grows well in heavier clay soils as long as they are well drained (Fiala, 1994). Major part of the production is consumed fresh and smaller part of the production is processed in juices, jellies and other jam items. Mostly the Indian apples are grown in three regions- Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand where they are cultivated at an altitude of 4000 to 11000 feet. Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have roughly equal production area for apple, but J&K has the higher average yield (output), which accounts to 67 percent of total apple production in India. (Anonymous, 2003).Jammu and Kashmir is the major apple producing state which produces about 1.33 million tons per year. (Anonymous, 2009) and it exports apple to Middle East, Gulf and East Asian countries through state marketing intermediaries (Javid & Banerjee, 2003). Its cultivation is done in all the districts of Kashmir valley and major share to the apple production comes from Baramulla, Shopian, Pulwama, Kulgam and Anantnag.

In developing countries, agriculture holds major roles in deciding the economic stability of the country and also acts as the backbone of their economy and same is the case with J&K state. As reported the agriculture sector is the key for the rural development over the world (Arinquez et al, 2007) and acts as a source of employement for the millions of people over the world (Kalchschmidt & Normansyah Syahruddin, 2011). Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian Economy. In 2013-14 Indian agriculture sector accounts for 18 percent of Gross Domestic Product(GDP) and provides direct employment to 50 percent of the workforce in India (Arjun, 2013).In the state GDP of J&K agricultural share is 19.35 percent in the year 2011-12, whereas share of apple industry to GSDP was 8 percent in 2013-14 (Anonymous, 2013).

In India under the medicinal value category, the apple murraba is widely used as a stimulant for heart and acts as purgative. It also prevents constipation, reduces incidence of dental caries, helps to control obesity and supplies extra energy for heavy exercise (Mitra & Rathore, 2004). The old saying "an apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been reconfirmed as the pulp of apple fruit has been found to be the second richest source of phytochemicals like quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are very strong antioxidants and reduces the risk of some cancers, cardiovascular diseases, asthma and diabetes (Block, Patterson, & Subar, 1992).In the early 1990's, researchers examined well over one hundred epidemiological studies relating to diet and cancer, and in 128 of 156 dietary studies, fruits and vegetables had a significant protective effect against a variety of different cancers (Ibid). They found that those who consumed low amounts of fruits and vegetables were twice as likely to have cancer compared to those who ate high amounts of fruits and vegetables.

Apple consumption has been inversely linked with asthma and has also been positively associated with general pulmonary health. In a recent study involving 1600 adults in Australia, apple and pear intake was associated with a decreased risk of asthma and a decrease in bronchial hypersensitivity (Woods et al, 2003). The phytochemicals present in apples may inhibit cancer cell proliferation, regulate inflammatory and immune response, and protect against lipid oxidation (Liu, 2003). They prevent oxidative stress and delay ageing (Ibid) Not only may apples help decrease the risk of heart disease, cancer, and asthma, but apple consumption may also be associated with a lower risk for diabetes. …

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