Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Classification of Human–vehicle Interaction: User Perspectives on Design

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Classification of Human–vehicle Interaction: User Perspectives on Design

Article excerpt

New generations of motor vehicles that are being released have increasingly complex technologies designed to offer increased safety, connectivity, and machine intelligence. The ability to operate these features intuitively is of key importance to achieving a more efficient, comfortable, enjoyable, and satisfying ride; thus, the installation of systems that facilitate human-vehicle interactions (HVIs) plays an important role in the commercial success of vehicles and must be factored into the development process (Marcus, 2004).

Currently, the motor vehicle is being transformed into a more automated version; intelligent parking assistance, in-car Wi-Fi hotspots, and self-steering capabilities have all become commonplace in high-end cars (see, e.g., BMW Group, 2017; Mercedes-Benz TechCenter, 2016; Tesla Model S, 2017; Volvo, 2017). Computer software is becoming an increasingly important part of the vehicle and it will not be long before semiautonomous or autonomous vehicles become a reality (Anderson et al., 2016). For the driver to be able to utilize the complex functions of future vehicles fully in a way he or she would find perceptive and intuitive, HVI should be developed by incorporating the human perspective in every step of interaction design (Gkikas, 2013). Human-centered or human-centric design is an approach to developing interactive systems with the aim of enhancing the usability and usefulness of systems by focusing on the users, their needs, and their requirements, and by applying human factors/ ergonomics, usability knowledge, and techniques (Akamatsu, Green, & Bengler, 2013; Kim et al., 2010; Park & Jeong, 2013).

Although there has been research conducted on the categorization of HVI issues and user-experience factors, such as safety, mobility, comfort, feedback, and connectivity, in most studies the focus has been either on the technological aspects or on evaluation of usability by experienced designers. On the other hand, taking a human-centric approach would ensure that the HVI categories and user-experience factors reflect a human perspective, and would require designers and researchers to learn directly from the people for whom they are designing. This would enable researchers to make sense of what they learn, to identify opportunities for design, and to develop a prototype with possible solutions that take human-centric approaches. The purpose of our research was to understand the views of user groups regarding the factors that comprise HVI.

There have been studies in which the researchers have attempted to categorize driving behavior by breaking down the task of driving into two or three categories. However, in their categorization of the task of driving, the researchers have focused on the functional aspect of driving; less attention has been given to the aspects of HVI, such as interaction method, driver distraction, alertness, driving style, control, and other dynamics. Here we ignored the perspective of concentrating on the driving task itself; instead our aim was to classify the integrated experiences that people encounter when driving a motor vehicle.

Literature Review

Human-Vehicle Interaction

Recently, the research on HVI has been expanded to include the behavior or preferences of drivers when they are in the vehicle. Studies in which researchers analyze drivers' behavior when in the vehicle can help in the identification of more intuitive interaction methods that are more naturalistic to, and preferred by, the drivers. For example, Wang and Ju (2015) found that drivers preferred to use a smartphone application (app) as their primary navigation tool and the in-vehicle navigation system as the secondary tool. Jeong et al. (2013) researched the preferred location for placing the whole display panel within the vehicle by using multiple physiological sensors.

Compared to previous research on HVI conducted from a human behavioral perspective, our aim was to improve on those previous studies in two main ways. …

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