Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Belt and Road Initiative: Regional and Global Dimensions

Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Belt and Road Initiative: Regional and Global Dimensions

Article excerpt

Introduction

The geographical environment, shorter route access has been helpful and desirable for the rapid progress, prosperity and economic growth of human society and the most important element so far is considered 'Sea' which in habits almost three quarters of the exterior of earth and also plays a pivotal role for the regional and global trade (Kalim, 2016). Human civilizations always achieve exuberance and profuse growth along waterways universally. The channels have been used as being trading routes since long times have further heightened the importance of trade carried out over the oceans, rivers and inland waterways. In the contemporary geo-strategic and geo·Authors economics state of affairs, the importance of the sea harbors cannot be overlooked in global economic structures (Mir, 2013). Therefore, the Sea anchorages provide a key link to a country with the external world. Obviously, the Sea ports constitute an obligatory center of commercial activity and can provide an extensive intensification to the economy of the state. The oceans and sea represent a dynamic part in shipping of transport as well as global scheme of trade (Malik, 2012).

Throughout the modern human civilization, oceanic and sea routes always remained a chief pool of natural resources and has been offering abundant prospects for the amelioration of national interests. Oceans can be a link of connection and responsible for entrance to the core of the outer world and Pakistan is lucky to have two important ports of the world and one is the Gwadar port. Historically, Gwadar port, being a fishing town is located in the Baluchistan on the opening of the Gulf of Oman, consequently, has been one of the key routes of the maritime communications between the regions of the Middle East and India and Far East. Therefore, Gwadar port, because of its 'warm water', has been of immense importance for Greeks, the Arabs, the Portuguese, the Persians, the Russians and the British in different periods of history. The port of Gwadar is famous for its location, existence and as a hub to provide regional connectivity. This sea port, on the major global energy routes of Strait of Hormuz, provides a direct passage to the Arabian Sea and also situated at adjacent route of Iranian Seaports of Chahbahar and Bander Abbas (Kalim, 2016). After having a geological survey in collaboration with United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 1954, Pakistan decided to purchase in the return for a cash payment of 3 million Pounds Sterling from Oman on 7th September 1958. Subsequently, it was merged into the territory of Pakistan during the tenure of Feroz Khan Noon. It brought to an end of Oman's end over 200 years of Omani control of the enclave (Rodeni, 1997) In 1964, for the first time, it was decided to launch a seaport at Gwadar but due to indecisive circumstance, it was not carried out. (Husain: 20116) The region was incorporated within the province of Baluchistan on 1st July 1977. The decision regarding the establishment of Gwadar seaport was undertaken in 1991 and no work was initiated uptil 2002 (Ali, 2013). At that critical juncture, China came forward with the required resources for the building the sea port. During the period of 1988-1992, a slight harbor was built at Gwadar, later, the task of construction was assigned to the Chinese company in 2002 which accomplished the completion of the 1st phase in 2006 (Haider, 2009). An agreement was signed with China in 2001 for its participation in the construction and enlargement of the deep seaport project. In 2008, the first shipping vessel anchored at the Gwadar harbor, carrying food grains from Canada to Pakistan. "Post Glory" being the first commercial shipment anchored at the seaport of Gwadar. Now the Civil Aviation Authority was allotted 3000 acres of land for the construction of Gwadar International Airport (Hussain, 2016). This mega plan encompassed many other sub-projects for the development of Gwadar seaport including transportation routes, production units capable of producing over 12,500 tons 'raw copper' daily, power generation units and railway lines, etc. …

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