Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Comparative Analysis of Changes in the Body Composition of Female Students under the Influence of the Various Kinds of Fitness Training Load

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Comparative Analysis of Changes in the Body Composition of Female Students under the Influence of the Various Kinds of Fitness Training Load

Article excerpt

Introduction

Within the framework of investigating the physical training of students of higher educational institutions, as well as the health work of fitness, wellness clubs and sports and health centers, the study of the changes in the component composition of the body has become increasingly important in recent years. Numerous research papers (Bartels et al, 2015; Mihuta et al, 2016) have indicated the fact that the composition of the body correlates with the indicators of physical and functional preparedness, human working capacity, adaptation to the environmental conditions, as well as with professional and sports activities. At the same time, researchers in the field of physical culture and sports emphasize that physiological harmony may be achieved if there is an optimal ratio of fat, cell, bone-muscle mass components and water (Goncharova et al, 2016; Ivanchykova, 2016; Pilipko & Ovseenko, 2011). Therefore, the use of physical education methods in higher education institutions, as well as in fitness and fitness classes, the methods of determining the component composition of the body has become increasingly relevant.

At the present time bioimpedance analysis, the contact method for measuring the electrical conductivity of biological tissues, is widely used in order to evaluate a wide range of morphological and physiological parameters of the body, determining the component composition of the body (Arroyo-Toledo et al, 2017; Bartels et al, 2015; Mihuta et al, 2015; Nescolarde et al, 2015). Bioimpedance analysis is based on the measurement of active and reactive resistance of a human body or its segments at various frequencies. The resistance level shows the characteristics of fat, dry, cell and skeletal masses, the volume of water and its distribution in the body. This study makes it possible to analyze the composition of the body at all levels of the organization of the biological system: elemental, molecular, cellular, organo-tissue, and also at the level of the whole organism. Anthropometric and bioelectric parameters are used to obtain a characteristic of human energy metabolism. Being a value describing the ratio of the basal metabolic rate to the surface area of the body, a specific basal metabolism is also calculated. Specific exchange makes it possible to compare the intensity of energy expended by different people, and this subject becomes particularly relevant in physical education, fitness and recreation based on the use of the healing effect of physical activity and fitness activities, including all possible technologies of mass sports and recreational physical culture (Bibik et al, 2010; Borysiuk et al, 2016; Goncharova & Tkacheva, 2016; Saienko, 2016). Particularly, the change of such labile components of body mass as muscle and fat mass occur under the influence of physical culture and health, reflecting the direction of adaptation processes of the organism and the predominant nature of its energy supply. The specialists in the field of physical culture and sports, fitness industry are concerned with the changes of the human body to optimize physical loads when training (Butenko et al, 2017; Tolchieva, 2016). Therefore, the use of the bioimpedance analysis the composition of the body in physical culture and fitness training becomes increasingly important, because it makes it possible to monitor the state of lipid, protein and water metabolism, ensuring the search and individual selection of proper motor loads.

Material & methods

During the course of a year, various types of fitness were used at the preparatory training and core physical training of 122 students of the second, third and fourth courses of Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University. The first experimental group (EGb n=41) practiced step aerobics, the second experimental group (EG2, n=39) - pump fitness technique, the third experimental group (EG3, n=42) - fitness yoga technique. The control group of students (CG, n=40) trained according to the standard program of physical culture, as stipulated by the curriculum of the higher educational institution. …

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