Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Aquafitness with High Intensity Interval Training on Physical Fitness

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Aquafitness with High Intensity Interval Training on Physical Fitness

Article excerpt

Introduction

In the overall adult population, current recommended amount of physical activity is 150 minutes per week of moderate continuous exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous exercise [1]. Adaptation processes lead to morphologic and functional changes, depending on type and range of physical load, age, gender and external conditions [2]. Level of physical fitness depends on frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity [3]. Aquafitness is a motional activity of mostly aerobic character, performed in water environment with or without the music [4]. Suggested length of an aquafitness unit is 20 - 60 min, depending on the training level of individuals and program purpose. Aquafitness types are divided according to training methods into continuous training with constant load intensity, circuit training (training stations) and interval training consisting of high-and low-intensity intervals [5]. Medium to high exercise intensity is recommended for majority of adult population and low to medium for non-trained people [6]. In order to attract more participants, aquafitness went through several changes [7]. Beside new types of equipment, new streams of aquafitness have been established. High intensity interval training (HIIT) with intermittent physical loading is defined as a repetition of high intensity bouts followed by varied recovery times [8]. Many studies used the repetition of short (less than 30 sec) and long (up to 3 min) intervals of high intensity alternated with active or passive recovery intervals where the work to recovery ratio is 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 [8-10]. HIIT provide similar advantages to continual endurance training, but in shorter period of time [8,11]. HIIT workout lasts for 20 - 60 minutes. Various protocols of interval training have been included into water fitness programs, e.g. Tabata [9].

Efficient aquafitness program results from 2-3 training units per week with 1-2 resting days in between [3,12,13]. Less than two training units are insufficient for achievement of functional changes [4]. Interval training is considered an effective way to improve overall and exercise intensity, which may be beneficial for adults. Continuous water training session should reach the intensity load of 50-85 % VO2max or 77-90 % HRmax [14]. Subjective evaluation using Borg scale of 6-20 [15] points should reach the level of 12-16 points [45]. However people with higher performance ability are recommended to include intermittent physical loading into training session, which can contain high intensity intervals reaching 85 % VO2max or 80-95 % HRmax [8,716]. According to Borg scale it should reach the level of 15-19 points. Maximum continuous and intermittent exercises with great fraction of anaerobic load are safe and may be included in training session for healthy population group [17]. Many research studies of aquafitness commonly practiced by older adults have concluded the positive changes in heart rate, body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, strength, and range of motion [18-22] as well as improvements in the level of quality of life, well-being and cognitive function [23-25]. Furthermore, the effectiveness of aquafitness programs with inclusion of intermittent physical loading of high intensity was confirmed by positive changes of physiological and psychological indicators of special populations as well as people with various health disorders in previous studies [26-28].

Additionally, some authors [29-31] have concluded the benefits of continuous aquafitness training of young adults. There were just a few studies that verified the effects of aqua HIIT on various variables of young adults [32,33]. However do the HIIT sequences included into a continuous aquafitness lesson provide the benefits in untrained young individuals?

From a practical perspective, the moderate continuous exercise requires a relatively large time commitment. From a psychological perspective, post exercise pleasure and enjoyment are higher during HIIT than during continuous exercise [34,35]. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.