Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Characteristics of the Psychomotor System in Preschool Children with Mental Disabilities

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Characteristics of the Psychomotor System in Preschool Children with Mental Disabilities

Article excerpt

Introduction

The health of the nation is primarily determined by the health of children, which is the most significant resource of any society (Prystupa, 2013; Yefymenko, 2013; Romanchyshyn, 2015). Health conditioning in preschool children, physiologically valuable development of all organs and systems of the body is of great importance in the preschool educational institutions (Engle, 2007; Grantham, 2007; Iedynak, 2017; Pasichnyk, 2012, 2015).

It is the preschool education mainly that is optimal for inclusion of children, who are in need of psychophysical development remodeling, in the educational environment, since this particular age period is the most conducive time to easily and auickly generate various personal manifestations. In particular, preschool children cease to make interindividual differences among people much faster than adults; kids actively master cultural skills, capabilities etc. (Artyushenko, 2010;, Budyak, 2009; Kuzava, 2015). Besides, the development of preschool children who require remodeling of psychophysical development can, under certain conditions, equal or approximate the level of development of the apparently healthy peers. The currently existing educational systems enable the management of this process (Kuzava, 2015).

In Ukraine special attention is attached to the issues of education of children with various disabilities. According to the studies of different authors quite a big number of preschool children possess insufficient psychomotor qualities. To a large extent, it applies to children with psychophysical backwardness due to the disturbances of different or several analyzers (i.e. visual, hearing), with organic nervous system disorders, mental retardation, speech impairments, locomotive system abnormalities, behaviour deviations, emotional disorders and severe multiple disturbances(Gvozdec'ka, 2005; Hlushchenko, 2013; Shlapachenko, 2012).

That is why the development of motor sphere, which is one of the most significant characteristics of children's health and physical perfection, is considered to be the task of paramount importance in preschool educational institutions (Shmaley, 2007; Volovyk, 2007; Walker, 2007; Stebliy, 2008; Wilczkowski, 2012).

The significance of studying and remodeling of disordered motor functions in children with psychophysical abnormalities is determined primarily by the role of motor analyzer in the development of brain functions, of higher nervous activity and mental functions. Hence, the research aimed at the study of psychomotor characteristics of children became of special value for working out pedagogical actions for remodeling psychophysical development of preschool children.

Purpose of the study was to identify psychomotor characteristics of preschool children with psychophysical abnormalities, as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of their manifestation.

Material and methods.

Following methods of research were used in the study: general scientific (analysis, generalization of literary sources data); educational ascertaining experiment, observations.

Participants: the study involved 118 children aged 5 - 6 years (N=118). Out of the total number of the study participants 54 children (25 girls and 29 boys) were in need of psychophysical development remodeling. Thus, 9 of them suffered from musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), though they did not display visual motor impairments (like gross gait, running, jumping or walking disorders); other 15 children had abnormalities of speech development (SDA); in 16 children were diagnosed as mentally deficient (MD); 5 kids had Down syndrome (DS); 9 children suffered from the disturbances of the autistic spectrum (ASD). A group of 64 kids (30 girls and 34 boys) had normative level of development (apparently healthy).

Organization of the study. The research was carried out on the basis of preschool educational institutions of the city of Lviv and Lviv region where compensatory and inclusive groups are operating. …

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