Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Self Acceptance of Students Repeating Classes in Ibadan Metropolis: Relationship with Parents' Sense- Of- Competence, Locus of Control and Quality of Parents-Child-Relationship

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Self Acceptance of Students Repeating Classes in Ibadan Metropolis: Relationship with Parents' Sense- Of- Competence, Locus of Control and Quality of Parents-Child-Relationship

Article excerpt

Introduction

In Oyo State, students who were not promoted to the next class due to failure to fulfill school laid down achievement criteria is currently attracting the attention of researchers, educationists, policy makers, counselling psychologists amongst others. This is not a misplaced priority since evidence clearly indicates that students who repeat class or grade is at increased behavioural problems such as risks of alcohol and drug use, smoking, suicidal intentions, and violent behaviour (Abdulrazzaqet al., 2017; Miyako & García, 2014). Moreover, retention is documented to be one of the most powerful predictors of high school dropout (Manacorda, 2012; Garcia-Jaramillo et al., 2011). Class retention is the practice in which students are required to repeat a grade level in school because they failed to meet required benchmarks or grade level standards. Repeaters are "held back" in the class they just finished the previous year to enable them repeat the same material they just covered the year before because it was believed that holding the student back would allow him/her the opportunity to "catch-up" academically with peers. Teachers and students may refer to retention as flunking, failing, or repeating a grade. Researchers also refer to retention as "non-promotion", "the gift of time", or "being held back" (Megan, 2014).

For over two decades, the Oyo state Government operated the automatic promotion policy in its secondary schools. Automatic promotion involves advancing a student who has not sufficiently gained the academic skills and knowledge of one class to a higher instruction or class. In 2016 the Government reversed its decision and decided to ask students who failed to meet up with stipulated academic standard to repeat the class. According to the Special Adviser to the Executive Governor on Media and publicity the reason for government action was due to the fact that "automatic promotion has resulted in indolence and nonchalant attitude on the part of pupils and large percentage of failures recorded in the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE)". However, the decision of Oyo state Government did not go down well with the students and possibly their parents despite governments' explanation that the policy was 'part of its strategy to rescue the state from the unenviable path of failure in external examinations." The students resorted to violence in order to protest the decision of the state government. It is on record that many personal and government properties were destroyed by the students during the period of the crisis. Their behaviour was in line with previous research finding that students who are academically poor are more likely to be engaged in violence than their successful counterpart (Ofole, et al. 2015).

The negative outcome of retention may arise from the fact that it forces retained students to repeat the same curriculum while their peers keep learning more advanced topics. Thus, this makes them feel miserable, bored and develops low self-esteem as a result of being "left out" by peers which culminates to lack of self-acceptance. Class repeaters are reported to have limiting belief systems, feelings of despair, self-judgment, and low selfesteem (Gottfried, 2013). In addition, students repeating often feel deeply inadequate, unliked, unwanted, unacceptable, or unable. Studies show that a self-rejecting person usually can make little or no progress (Jasper, 2017; Megan, 2014). A student who does not accept self would automatically try to deny failure. The consequences of this would most likely manifest itself physically in the form of frustration, tension, boredom, anger, depression, suicidal thoughts or even untimely death (Gottfried, 2013). However, self acceptance is a powerful cleansing properties which could generate movement in the energy system, which in turn brings hope. Self acceptance allows individuals to feel good about themselves, even with the flaws, mistakes and failures that they a have. …

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