Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Biofeedback and L-Theanine in Patients Suffering from Anxiety Disorder

Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Biofeedback and L-Theanine in Patients Suffering from Anxiety Disorder

Article excerpt


Anxiety disorders are widespread; lifetime prevalence for the group of disorders is projected to be as high as 25%. The National Co-morbidity Study reported that 12- month prevalence rate of anxiety disorder is 18.1%. Women (30.5% lifetime prevalence) are more likely to have anxiety disorder than are men; 19.2 % lifetime prevalence (Kessler et al, 2010).

L-theanine is used as a potential therapeutic agent in psychiatric conditions of anxiety, mood disorders and can be used as a natural sleep aid (Kimura et al, 2007). L-Theanine is one of the predominant amino acids found in green tea and previously it has been used as a relaxing agent. There are different methods used to achieve relaxation, but the procedures that are most commonly practiced in the clinical setting is Jacobson's Progressive Muscular Relaxation (JPMR). In the present study, PMR technique is used because of its better reported results, its simplicity in performance and easy independent practice at home. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is an accessible and effortless technique that can be performed in any set up. This technique was developed by American physician Edmund Jacobson in early 1920s.

Biofeedback is a training to augment self regulatory ability over brain activity patterns and therefore over brain mental states (Suzuki et al, 2003). Biofeedback may be reported as the process of supplying information about an ongoing physical response in the body. This acquaintance is used to change the bodily response and thus enhance self control and diminish the anxiety symptoms (Karavidas et al, 2007).

A study depicted that even lower doses of L-theanine can induce alpha-wave production & relaxation. Electroencephalogram tracings were obtained from 54 healthy participants at baseline and 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 minutes after 50 mg L-theanine (n=16) or placebo (n=19). The theanine group demonstrated a statistical significant which indicate greater increase in alpha-wave production than the placebo group which means significant improvement in anxiety (Kimura et al, 2007). Yoto et al (2012) has shown not only the benefits of L-theanine on attenuation of anxiety but attentions also increase as well.

In a study of Saldanha et al. (2007) found multiple combined methods of biofeedback and medication seemed to be most effective in reducing anxiety symptoms.

A meta-analysis compared the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for escitalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post effect size (ES), medications were more effective than psychotherapies. (Bandelow et al, 2015).

Objective of the Study

To study the efficacy of different interventions in management of other anxiety disorder.



A total of 30 patients with the diagnosis of other anxiety disorders as per ICD-10 fulfilling following inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study.

Inclusion Criteria

Patients having a diagnosis of other anxiety disorder (F 41) as per ICD-10, having mild to moderate anxiety as per HAM-A severity, between age group of 18-60 years, belonging to tricity i.e. Chandigarh, Mohali, Panchkula and willing to give consent and participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria

Patients on psychotropic medicines other than L-Theanine, substance dependence except nicotine and caffeine, Presence of other major mental/ medical/ surgical or neurological illness requiring active intervention, Pregnant & lactating women and with sub normal intelligence.

Tools Used

Socio-demographic Profile Sheet

The Socio-demographic profile sheet include: Age, Gender, Employment, Domicile, Education, Family Type and Income. …

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