Academic journal article Journal of Positive Management

Characteristics and Competences of a Contemporary Polish Manager Working in International Markets

Academic journal article Journal of Positive Management

Characteristics and Competences of a Contemporary Polish Manager Working in International Markets

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

In recent years, the number of world-wide studies on the competences of modern manager (manager-leader) and of the manager (manager-leader) of the future. Despite the growing number of studies, this topic remains unverified (β€žon a hypothesis level") (Kuc, 2016). However, it is still important. The pace of change requires the development of new qualities and skills, and organizational management becomes a process saturated with creativity, continuous professional and personal development, and the pursuit of good relationships in the workplace and outside of it. Although management science does not explicitly define the concept of a manager, nor does it have a list of universal attributes and requirements for managers, the most common view on management sees it as a process of pursuit of success in every area of the organization. After an analysis of individual profiles of managerial competences, the focus of this paper was put on the profile of the managerial skills of the Polish manager, cited by J. Penc in 2001. This model was deliberately chosen due to its relative closeness in time (it was published 16 years ago), simplicity, and Polish background. Despite a mere 16 years of business-related history, there has been a noticeable increase in the internationalization of business activity of Polish businesses. More and more enterprises are directly or indirectly expanding their activity outside their home country (Glinkowska and Kaczmarek, 2016a). Many barriers, threats, but also opportunities for enterprises (Glinkowska and Kaczmarek, 2016b) result from this international action, which is the reason for the necessity of expanding the managerial competence by new, unknown or not yet applied competences, as well as lessening the importance of some values, held earlier in high regard.

Own research has proven the inspiration for writing this article. The research has been conducted in recent years on a sample of fifty-five Polish companies that are expanding or already have expanded (indirectly or directly) outside their home market. Enterprises are primarily (90%) located in the Lodz Region (Central Poland) and represent different industries: manufacturing, service and trade. They cooperate with at least one foreign country. Size wise, they belong to the micro, medium and small businesses sector. The research instruments used were self-administered questionnaire and researcher-administered questionnaire. The interview technique also allowed for free expression of the respondents, who were middle and line managers, as well as specialists with different functions. When it came to small companies, primarily their owners were interviewed, who managed in an indivisible way the economic activity on the Polish and foreign markets. The sample selection was deliberately targeted and addressed to a total of ninety respondents who were experienced in contact with foreign markets(from few to several years).

The aim of this study was to identify the most desirable qualities and competences of the contemporary Polish manager. On the other hand, the aim of this article is to compare the obtained list of competences and features of the contemporary manager with J. Penc's profile of a Polish manager published 16 years ago (Penc, 2001). From these aims emerges a clear research task: an attempt to define the characteristics and competences profile of the Polish manager of the future. It has been hypothesized that the competences of the modern Polish manager (and future manager) are evolving in the direction of leadership.

2.Managerial competences in the subject literature

Having the authority of knowledge, professionalism, adaptability to change, problem solving ability, effectiveness in action, pragmatism, rationalism and firmness are according to P. F. Drucker the factors characterizing a manager (Kubik, 2012). Today, a manager is perceived primarily as a leader and high-end business professional, who who manages resources (including human resources), is responsible for talent search and management, and the strategic plan to bring the company to success (Austen, ,'Organization and Management" No. …

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