Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Analyzing Process of Problem Solving with Group Via Statistical Discourse Analysis *

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Analyzing Process of Problem Solving with Group Via Statistical Discourse Analysis *

Article excerpt

To be knowledgeable today, to do a job in a fault-free manner in accordance with their stages are not enough. Information is changing rapidly, expertise is changing, and changes are taking place at a dizzying pace. In order for people to succeed, they are expected to be productive, be creative, critical thinking, collaborating effectively, problem solving, effective communication, knowing how to access the information they need, being flexible, being easy to adapt, taking responsibility, taking initiative, sustaining their inner motivations. Today, one of the outstanding skills is the ability to present problem-solving, creative solutions to problems.

Human is social. Nowadays, accumulation of knowledge has increased considerably. Coping as a group with a problem can be more effective than coping individually. Shaw (1981) defines the group as "two or more people affecting each other and interacting with each other" and the common point of groups according to the author is "the interaction of group members" (p. 9). Groups perceived "us" concept against "those" concept (Turner, 1987). Intimacy groups provide adaptation needs of the group members, task groups provide success needs of the group members, social groups provide the needs of identity needs of the group members (Johnson et al., 2006). Individual work in groups or working in groups can affect group members in different ways. In other words, group influence can create collective positive situations like unity of force or social facilitation; or negative situations as polarization, social withdrawal, self-esteem, etc. (Myers, 2017).

In order to understand the social effects of group processes, two models are suggested in the field writing: social communication approach and social integration approach (Baron & Kerr, 2003). In order to understand the social effect within the group according to the social communication approach, it is necessary to analyse the communication between the members of the group, in other words, "Who said to whom, what situation or effect? According to the social integration approach, the preferences of the group members are transformed into a single collective side belonging to the group, which is formulated in some processes belonging to the group." Different combinations of group processes can be mathematically modelled. The results obtained from the mathematical model can be tested by comparing the actual results with the group. Today, approaches to social integration are known as social integration models (Laughlin, 2011).

Data is analysed by Dynamic Multilevel Analysis-DMA. In many cases where consecutive discourse takes place, it can be analysed how pre-condition variables affect the final state of discourse. Chiu and Khoo (2005) used DMA when studying problem solving in small groups in mathematics, while studying the interaction of certain characteristics of students with discourse in the problem solving process. Chiu (2008) also used this method in mathematics lessons to influence small creativity in the interaction of certain characteristics of students and discourses in the process and Chiu (2008) used this method in the lessons of mathematics in the effect of more correct contributions (through discourse) to problem solving in small groups, Gottman et al. (2003, as cited in Chiu & Khoo, 2005) have used this methodology in how discourses influence matrimonial conflicts, Farran and Son-Yarbrough (2001, as cited in Chiu & Khoo, 2005) used this method in the influence of discourses on preschool games.

DMA is based on regression analysis. The analysis is carried out in three steps. These include: a) determination of time intervals by means of breakpoints, b) obtaining multilevel logits, and c) testing. Differences between groups can be modelled over time intervals using DMA (also known as a hierarchical model). It is used in special cases in which the effect of variables on sample unit, session, and time intervals is examined. …

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