Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Influence of Skier Speed on the Diagonal Stride Motion

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Influence of Skier Speed on the Diagonal Stride Motion

Article excerpt

Introduction

Nowadays a rapid development of skiing is observed caused by improvement of equipment, new methods of skiing runs preparation, introduction of sprint races in the competition program (Novikova & Sergeev, 2016; Sandbakk et al., 2011). Increase of competitive speeds has resulted in changes of skating step biomechanical parameters and motivated the scientists to analysis technique and search for the optimum variants of covering different competitive distances in ski races and biathlon.

Racing skiers utilize various skating steps for efficient covering different distance segments. No other sports event has such a wide range of various motion patterns used in one race.

There are two major skiing styles: skate and classic (Koriagina, 2015). Efficient selection of skating step depends on path profile and speed of skier (Baumann, 1985; Grasaas at al., 2014; Ramenskaya, 2001). The frequency of skating step alternating during competition complicates the motion. Е. Anderson et al. (2010) reported that during 1,43 km race the average number of skating step changes constituted 29,1. More skilled skiers tend to use higher portion of speed skating steps (Sandbakk at al., 2015), besides, faster athletes have increased length of motion cycle (Stoggl et al., 2011).

Technical preparation of a skier represents a process of purposeful training and mastering of skiing techniques. A high level of sports results requires constant and in-depth work on improving the technique throughout the entire period of active skiing (Stoggl et al., 2013). In the plans for the preparation of skiers from novice to qualified athlete, continuity of mastering and improving technical skills must be foreseen. Even the achievement of the highest results does not mean that technical excellence has been achieved. The skier should continue to improve the technique of the various elements of movements, eliminate individual inaccuracies and errors even in this case (Lindinger & Holmberg, 2011; Marsland at al., 2012).

The main factor in the development and improvement of skating step techniques is the correct mastering of the biomechanical structure of movements (Bilodeau at al., 1996). While designing sports preparation at all stages of the annual macrocycle (especially at the stage of direct preparation for the competition), technical training of skiers is of tremendous importance.

The technique of the best racing skiers of today is changing drastically, which is connected with the improvement of ski equipment, ski lubricants, preparation of ski runs and other variables. Analysis of changes that occur in the technique of skiers allows identifying their peculiarities and determining the optimal parameters of the most technical preparation (Holmberg at al., 2005; Lindinger at al., 2009).

Continuous work on improving the technique of skiing with usage of a variety of video materials and films not only significantly complements the information that comes to the athlete, but also contributes to the creation of a real image of the correct technique and errors that arise during the movement and, in the same way, greatly facilitates the process of technical improvement (Myklebust at al., 2014). Within the framework of the biomechanical analysis, the calculation of optimal kinematic and angular parameters, the determination of technical skill efficiency indices and the identification of differences in the technique of racing skiers of leading ski countries are made.

The modern technique of skating steps, especially the sprint technique is highly efficient, but extremely energy-consuming and requires excellent physical fitness. The rational usage of various technique variants for competitive distance covering contributes to economy of efforts, energy and increase of overall performance (Stoggl at al., 2008).

Clear definition, explanation and reinforcement of the factors ensuring sports achievements in this field, and first of all, the study of qualitative aspects and their importance for provision of the economy of movement (ease and energy economy due to technical skills), speed of movement i. …

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