Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Exploring the Social Entrepreneurial Intentions of Senior High School and College Students in a Philippine University: A Pls-Sem Approach

Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Exploring the Social Entrepreneurial Intentions of Senior High School and College Students in a Philippine University: A Pls-Sem Approach

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Over the years, social entrepreneurship has continued to garner attention in scholarship and practice. Although much has been written about how organizations and entrepreneurs can utilize business practices to solve society's problems (Dees, 2012; Mair, Robinson & Hockerts, 2006), conceptualizations and definitions of the term still vary. Dees (2001) has been cited among various authors as one of the pioneers of social entrepreneurship as a field of study. He characterized social entrepreneurs as pursuing social value instead of focusing on commercial value, harnessing opportunities that serve mission and advocacies, engaging in innovation, acting bold despite limited sources, and shows accountability to the stakeholders and beneficiaries served for the initiatives pursued. Although social entrepreneurs are becoming recognized across the global, regional, and national levels, there is still much to be done to increase these changemakers. In a special report released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (Bosma, Schott, Terjesen & Kew, 2015), social entrepreneurs who are involved in starting up their social enterprises is 3.2% among 58 GEM economies, while commercial entrepreneurial activity averages around 7.6% globally. Current social entrepreneurs who are already leading and operating their own social entrepreneurial initiatives are around 3.7%. Most of the social entrepreneurial activities are associated with the young demographic, specifically 18-to-34-yearolds. Despite the visibility and recognition of social entrepreneurship at the global scale, there is still much to be done to increase the number social entrepreneurs across different countries. Given the role of social entrepreneurs in solving various problems, it is important to study what factors drive a person's intention to engage in social entrepreneurial activities. The studies of Ayob, Yap, Sapuan & Rashid (2013), Chipeta and Surujlal (2016), Hockerts (2017), Politis, Ketikidis & Diamantidis (2016) and Prieto (2011), targeted undergraduate or postgraduate students, given that these respondents are more predisposed to think about their careers after education. In effect, most of these papers' recommendations for policies are catered to students who are more career-oriented already.

One of the objectives of this paper is to test the SEI model of Hockerts (2017), which was grounded on the ideas of Mair and Noboa (2006) and the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). The research question is: What is the significance and extent of effect of the predictors-prior experience, empathy, moral obligation, self-efficacy, and perceived social support-on SEI? Another objective of the paper is to explore what variables can extend the SEI model. Certain dimensions of personality represented by the Big Five model, such as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are posited to have an influence on social entrepreneurial intentions (İrengün & Arıkboğa, 2015; Nga & Shamuganathan, 2010). Moreover, Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews & Kelly (2007), mentioned that grit is associated with personality traits. Specifically, their study found a correlation between grit and conscientiousness. Given the other studies' findings that conscientiousness could have an influence on intention, it is interesting to explore whether grit also has an effect on SEI. Exploring these extensions of the SEI model is suitable for PLS-SEM (Hair, Hult, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2014; Lowry & Gaskin, 2014). Furthermore, another variable that this paper examined is a student's prior exposure to social action programs such as school-driven outreach initiatives. As theorized by Ajzen, these variables can be considered as background factors or antecedents that are mediated by the main predictors of intention. Therefore, the second research question is: What is the significance and extent of effect of agreeableness, grit, and prior exposure to social action programs on SEI, as mediated by empathy, moral obligation, self-efficacy, and perceived social support? …

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