Academic journal article Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal

Synergizing Digital-Based Technology and Management in Water Balance Calculation as Decision Support System for River Basin Management-Study at Upper Citarum Watershed in Bandung Greater Area

Academic journal article Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal

Synergizing Digital-Based Technology and Management in Water Balance Calculation as Decision Support System for River Basin Management-Study at Upper Citarum Watershed in Bandung Greater Area

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Water covers 70% earth's surface, but fresh water that is necessary for human life and industrial use, is just 2.5% and two-thirds of that is in the form of glacier. This small amount of fresh water causes about 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water and 2.7 billion people find water scarce for at least one month of the year (WWF, 2017). According to JP Morgan (2008) and 2030 Water Resource Group (2009) research, there is water scarcity that have major impact on public and private sectors. The 2030 Group concludes that by 2030, assuming an average annual growth of 2%, if no efficiency gains are realized, there will be 2.800 billion m3 water shortage that affect domestic, industrial and agriculture needs.

As the population and industry grow, the demand of water continues to increase. Cities cannot be sustainable without ensuring reliable access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. World Water Assessment Programme (2009) mentions that almost all major cities in the world face the crisis of water in 2010. Yamashita (2012) states that the increase of water demand for industrial and domestic needs in Tokyo caused the government developed waterworks from surface water in remote areas. Nevertheless, according to Alimah and Putro (2014), the use of Citarum Watershed is dominated by households.

Upper Citarum Watershed which is part of Citarum watershed, covers Bandung city, Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency, Sumedang Regency and Cimahi city where these areas are dominated by residential, agricultural and industrial areas. In this study, these areas called Bandung Greater Area. Bandung Greater Area community are highly depending on upper Citarum watershed and most of the water necessity is supplied from Citarum Watershed. Unfortunately, there has never been any research on water balance that calculate how much water supplied by Citarum Watershed to fulfil domestic, industrial and agriculture demand in Bandung Greater Area.

Therefore, in order to maintain the sustainability of water fulfillment for domestic, industrial and agriculture needs, this study is needed to calculate the need and availability. The result of this study can support government policy in terms of planning and managing water allocation for community needs in Bandung Greater Area. The water balance analysis can be used as a basis analysis to develop policy for Citarum Watershed to prevent water scarcity problem and the fulfillment of water supply for Bandung Greater Area.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Water Scarcity

Physical Water Scarcity

Water scarcity refers to the volumetric abundance or lack thereof, of water supply. This is typically calculated as a ratio of human water consumption to available water supply in a given area. Water scarcity is a physical, objective reality that can be measured consistently across regions and over time (Schulte, 2014). Water scarcity involves water shortage, water stress or deficits and water crisis. The relatively new concept of water stress is difficulty in obtaining sources of fresh water for use during a period of time; it may result in further depletion and deterioration of available water resources. Water shortages may be caused by climate change, such as altered weather-patterns (including droughts or floods), increased pollution and increased human demand and overuse of water (WWF, 2013). The term water crisis labels a situation where the available potable, unpolluted water within a region is less than that region's demand (Hinrichsen, 2008). Two converging phenomena drive water scarcity: Growing freshwater use and depletion of usable freshwater resources (Chance, 2011).

Water scarcity can be resulted by two mechanisms: (1) Physical (absolute) water scarcity and (2) Economic water scarcity. Physical water scarcity results from inadequate natural water resources to supply a region's demand and economic water scarcity results from poor management of the sufficient available water resources. …

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