Academic journal article International Management Review

Managing Factors That Predict Breast Cancer Knowledge and Health Information Sources in African-Born Women

Academic journal article International Management Review

Managing Factors That Predict Breast Cancer Knowledge and Health Information Sources in African-Born Women

Article excerpt

Background

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in African-born black women living in America (Nwabuku & etc., 2013). According to the National Cancer Institute [NCI] (2017), in the United States, new cases of invasive female breast cancer were 231,840, breast cancer deaths among women were 40,290, and breast cancer treatment cost $16.5 billion in 2015 (Sheppard, 2010). Some of the breast cancer risk factors include older age, race, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, inadequate dietary intake high in saturated fat, genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Early detection with screening mammography can reduce the number of breast cancer deaths (American Cancer Society, 2015).

Racial disparities in breast cancer diagnosis exist. Little is known about breast cancer knowledge, and sources of health information in African-born black women (National center for Health Statistics, 2005). According to the Migration Policy Institute (2018), approximately 167,000 sub-Saharan African immigrants live in the Washington DC metropolitan area in 2015 (Migration Policy Institute, 2018). The current study was prompted by disparities in breast cancer diagnosis with advanced-stage breast cancer, and higher mortality rates in African-born black women compared to other racial groups because of later stages at diagnosis (SEER, 2017). Black women have the highest mortality rate from breast cancer (31) compared to Non-Hispanic white (22), Asian American (15), Hispanic (14), and American-Indian/ Pacific Islander women (11) (SEER, 2017).

Mortality rates describe how many women out of 100,000 that died from breast cancer each year. Late stage diagnosis has been primarily attributed to lack of breast cancer knowledge and awareness, and reliable sources of health information, which in turn led to a lower frequency of mammograms, lack of breast-self-examination, and timely follow-up of suspicious results (Hurtado-de-Mendoza & etc., 2014). Very often, African-born women are grouped together or categorized as identical or similar with African American-born women, ignoring the cultural and social heterogeneity or differences that exist between the populations, which may not always be considered when implementing health promotion and healthcare services targeting African women populations (Ku & Matani, 2001).

Black women in the United States continue to have the highest rates of breast cancer deaths. The scarce research with African-born immigrant women has shown continued cancer-related disparities among this group (Morrison & etc., 2012). For example, African immigrant women have lower screening rates compared to White American women due to lack knowledge of breast cancer (Migration Policy Institute, 2018).

Immigrants may also rely on a few sources of information about breast cancer than native populations because of lack of knowledge about various reliable sources of breast cancer information. Tortolero-Luna et al., (2010) in an article that described cancer information seeking behaviors, sources of information, and experiences seeking information among Puerto Ricans found that the Internet was the most frequently reported source of information about health (32.9%) or about cancer (28.1%) (Tortolero-Luna &etc., 2010). There is a significant gap in the published literature regarding knowledge and awareness, sources of information, and experiences of African-born women residing in the United States (Hurtado-de-Mendoza & etc., 2014). More information is needed to adequately develop health education interventions that focus on breast cancer knowledge, awareness, and reliable sources of health information for this at the at-risk population.

Problem Statement

What are the factors that predict Breast Cancer Knowledge and Sources of Health Information among African-born women in the Washington DC metro area?

* 1a. what predicts breast cancer knowledge among African immigrant women? …

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