Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Physical Rehabilitation of Patients Who Underwent the Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament with Arthroscopic Surgical Interventions

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Physical Rehabilitation of Patients Who Underwent the Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament with Arthroscopic Surgical Interventions

Article excerpt

Introduction.

Due to the complexity of its anatomical structure and its biomechanics, knee joint (KJ) among all other big joints is damaged the most often and has a high risk of posttraumatic complications. Over 70% of musculoskeletal injuries stand particularly for knee joint (Kuznetsov I.A., 2011).

The results of the theoretical analysis made in the process of the research show the stable growing in number of ACL injuries - up to 80-85 cases out of 100 000 persons, especially among young people (Abdelkafy A., 2007).

Arthroscopic operative interventions are of big importance for developing treatment methods for ACL injuries, and the most progressive method to recover its function by now is its reconstruction (Bogatov V.B., 2011). Such surgeries allow not only to keep the normal biomechanics of knee joint, but also to prevent the early development of posttraumatic gonarthrosis (Chemiris A. Y., Davydenko A. V., 2001; Andriychuk O.Ya., 2013). In this case, the number of operative interventions regarding the ACL plastic surgery makes up 34 out of 100 000 persons (Kuznetsov I.A., 2011).

The effectiveness of physical rehabilitation depends on the proper estimation of functional disorders, which need correction after the arthroscopic surgery provided (Zazirnyi I. M., 2014; Zamorsky T., Zakharov O., Nikanorov O., 2014). The most of the functional disorders are connected both with the preoperative injuries of the knee joint structure and with the reaction of the body itself to the surgery, the further restriction of movements and with the peculiarities of reparative processes in the postoperative period (Kostrub A.A., Roy I.V., Kotyuk V.V., Zasadniuk I.A., 2015).

According to the data from the professional literature, this is exactly the sequence of stages in incorporating the transplant into the bone tunnels and its remodeling (ligamentization), which is the basis for differentiating the stages of physical rehabilitation, divided into weeks, which forms the priority tasks for the recovery treatment of patients with ACL injuries, waiting to be solved: avoiding overloading of the transplant, early strengthening of the lower limb muscles to provide the dynamic stability in the joint and to decrease the pressure in the transplant; progressive growth of the axial loading and movement workout in the joint; joint swelling and infiltration control; muscle control rearranging (Pauzenberger L., Syre S., Schurz M., 2013).

In this connection, the development of new and upgraded rehabilitation programs for patients with ACL injuries who underwent the arthroscopic operative interventions is still very relevant.

Methodology of research.

Participants

In the process of the research, we have systematized and consolidated data from 52 medical histories of the patients who addressed ITO NAMS during the period of 2013-2016. The patients (52 people) without temporary contraindications for arthroscopic operative intervention were examined using instrumental methods of research. The examination was made within different periods of recovery treatment.

21 patients (main group) underwent rehabilitation according to the proposed program after ACL reconstruction; 31 patients kept to the traditional program of physical rehabilitation. The results, registered on the preliminary stage of research, showed no statistically meaningful discrepancies between the examined indicators and the age of the patients among the control group and the main group.

All the patients (52 people) underwent the rehabilitation treatment in the rehabilitation department of ITO NAMS of Ukraine and were operated in the hospitals of the institute. The femoral end of the transplant was fixed with the help of "Rigid-fix" or "Cross-pin" systems, and the tibial end - using "Biointrafix" or "Biosuresynk" systems. Medication was applied according to the prescriptions.

Procedure

To achieve the set target in this work the following methods were used: theoretical analysis of data from the scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical, clinical (examination, anamnesis collection), instrumental methods of research (anthropometric measurements, goniomenty, dynamomentry, electromyography, stabilography) and methods of mathematical data processing. …

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