Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Heart Rate Variability in Elite Hockey Players of 11-13 Years Old and Selection Efficiency in Professional Youth Hockey

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Heart Rate Variability in Elite Hockey Players of 11-13 Years Old and Selection Efficiency in Professional Youth Hockey

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

Changes in heart rate occur under the influence of any exogenous or endogenous environmental factors, which provide sufficient impact to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and short-term adaptive responses (Baevsky, & Ivanov, 2000, Tonello, Rodrigues, &Souza, 2014). Heart rate variability is a method for evaluating the activity of various mechanisms regulating visceral systems of a human body(Szlajzel, Jung, &Sievert, 2008, Leti, &Bricout, 2013, Abad, do Nascimento, Gil, Kobal, Loturco, Nakamura, Mostarda, & Irigoyen, 2014, Koenig, Jarczok, Wasner, Hillecke, &Thayer, 2014, Plews, Laursen, Le Meur, Hausswirth, Kilding, &Buchheit, 2014, Cipryan, Laursen, &Plews, 2016). HRV changes occur prior to hemodynamic, metabolic and energy disturbances of the body making this method valuable for the assessment of functional condition (Ban', & Zagorodnyi, 2010). Methods of HRV assessment are used in sports physiology and medicine (Schmitt, Regnard, Desmarets, Mauny, Mourot, Fouillot, Coulmy, & Millet, 2013, Sandercock, & Brodie, 2006). However, the study of age-related HRV peculiarities showed ambiguous results (Gąsior, Sacha, Jeleń, Pawłowski, Werner, & Dąbrowski, 2015, Cayres, Vanderlei, Rodrigues, Silva, Codogno, Barbosa, & Fernandes, 2015, Jarrin, McGrath, Poirier, Séguin, Tremblay, Montplaisir, Paradis, & Séguin, 2015), which are possibly related to the samples studied. Interpretation and the choice of methods and HRV parameters also differ. In international practice, the parameters of time domain methods (Statistical methods) and spectral analysis (Spectral components) are considered to be the most informative. In the spectral analysis of short-term ECG recordings little attention is paid to very low frequency waves - VLF (<0.04 Hz). High frequency and low frequency waves in absolute and relative values are used as the main parameters of the spectral analysis. Parameters of VLF-waves are totally excluded from HRV analysis when normalized values are used. At the same time, some authors think that VLF-waves are an essential component, which proves the activity of cerebral-ergotropic structures of the central nervous system (CNS) (Shlyk, 2009).

The period between 11 and 13 years is critical for ontogenesis as it comprises active neurohormonal changes of the body. Changes occur at all levels of body functioning from homeostatic to psychophysiological functional systems and influence the development of young hockey players (Surina-Marysheva; Erlikh; Korableva; Kantyukov; Svisheva; & Ermolaeva, 2017). There is a high risk of injury in young athletes because of the peculiarities of competition rules (Popkin, Schulz, Park, Bottiglieri, & Lynch, 2016, Linzmeier, & LaBella, 2016). Due to the lack of attention to age-related body peculiarities in young athletes, inappropriate physical strain can be the reason for deceleration of a young athlete's ontogenesis and the developing of maladjustment (overtraining).

Aerobic endurance is one of the most important criteria of functional fitness during sport selection in hockey players (Montgomery, 2006). Scientists established that there is a correlation between athlete's aerobic capacities and HRV parameters (Gavrilova, & Churganov, 2012). Changes in young hockey players during the critical periods of ontogenesis should influence the parameters of HRV, while the level of regulatory strain can indirectly affect the efficiency of athlete's career development after graduation from Olympic Reserve sport schools.

We anticipated that there is a correlation between HRV parameters in hockey players aged 11-13 and the efficiency of sports selection for professional youth hockey teams. There is a subpar amount of research in field considering the manner of studies in youth elite hockey schools. At the same time, information on agerelated peculiarities in young hockey players is essential to control the conformity of physical loads to functional capacity of the body and to conduct sport selection in professional junior and youth hockey teams. …

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