Academic journal article European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

Comparative Analysis of Modern Methods of Psychotherapy for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

Academic journal article European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

Comparative Analysis of Modern Methods of Psychotherapy for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

Article excerpt

1.Background

Personality disorders have a significant impact on the lives of not only those who have the disorders but also on those who surround them. Personality disorders have been identified as widespread in the global population among all mental health disorders. One of the most studied is borderline personality disorder (BPD) according to DSM-V or emotionally unstable personality disorder (ICD-10).

In the United Kingdom, according to studies from the late 1980s and early 2000s published in the British Journal of Psychiatry in April 2006, the prevalence of personality disorders according to DSM-IV criteria was 4.4%, of which borderline personality disorder (BPD) was 0.7% (Coid et al., 2006). According to the Ministry of Defense of Great Britain (2008), 9% of the population have personality disorders, among which the borderline personality disorder has a rate of 1% (Christmas, 2008). The author points out that 75% of people who have this disorder are women. The same ratio of gender prevalence is noted in the United States (National Alliance of Mental Illness, 2017), although some studies cite a prevalence of 80% (Paris, 2005). In contrast, the National Alliance of Mental Health (USA) believes that among men BPD has the same frequency as among women; however, in men, it is often misdiagnosed as depression or PTSD (National Alliance of Mental Illness, 2017).

According to the 2001-2002 research statistics published in August of 2004 at Science Daily in the USA, the prevalence of personality disorders according to DSM-IV criteria was 14.8% of adult Americans (National Institutes of Health, 2004). However, schizotypal, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders were excluded from this study since the presence of many symptoms needed to be established for their diagnosis. The National Institute of Mental Health in the USA in 2007 notices that approximately 9.1% of adult Americans have a personality disorder, BPD - 1,4-1,6% (Lenzenweger et al., 2007). However, it is believed that the prevalence of BPD amounts to 5.9% due to misdiagnosis (National Alliance of Mental Illness, 2017).

According to WHO studies (2009), the prevalence of personality disorders in the world, according to the criteria of DSM-IV, is 6.1%, and disorders of cluster В - 1.5% and every year this indicator tends to increase (Huang et al., 2009). Unfortunately, there is no reliable data on the prevalence of personality disorders in Ukraine, but we believe that it may reach the average for Western Europe according to the WHO data - 2.4% (Huang et al, 2009).

The general characteristics of BPD include a significant degree of instability in various personal spheres of human life, along with distorted perceptions of others or their person. Also, sufferers with BPD have interpersonal maladjustment and problems in developing good relationships with society, so they are usually stigmatized as "hard people". As a result, they may commit acts of self-harmed or make suicide attempts during periods of severe depression or episodes of explosive anger and rage.

On the background of strong emotional instability transient psychotic symptoms sometimes are noted (National Collaboration Center for Mental Health, 2009). They manifest in short-term episodes of mania and visual-auditory hallucinations, which requires the necessity to differentiate them from other comorbid disorders, including schizophrenia (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2009). In the family of such persons sometimes there are suicide attempts among their members. Close people, having done everything they could and without having achieved the result to help these people in their problem behaviour, send them for help to doctors.

People who have personality disorders require significant support and psychotherapeutic assistance. Birgit A. Völlm and colleges from the Forensic Psychiatric Unit of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham (UK) noted that in the treatment of personality disorders, between psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, the priority should be given to the first one (Völlm et al. …

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