Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Inclusive Methods of Adaptive Training in Sprints: A Theoretical Preliminary Study

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Inclusive Methods of Adaptive Training in Sprints: A Theoretical Preliminary Study

Article excerpt

Introduction

During the years the concept of disability has undergone countless transformations, moving from a mode of approach of total indifference to a process of inclusion aimed at enhancing individual differences and not to diminish them (Altavilla, Di Tore, 2016, Altavilla et al., 2015). However, although the WHO (World Health Organization) has developed a new classification tool, the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) based on the bio-psycho-social model that evaluates the concept of health understood as physical, mental and social well-being, it continues itself to consider different category and separate from that of the normal locution.

Already in the first decades of the 19th century, they begin to see the first attempts of inclusion of the subjects with disability in the field of sport: blind and visually impaired persons had the possibility to practice physical activity thanks to the birth of the APA (Adapted Physical Activity), with the aim of finding alternative solutions and programming physical activities adapted to the needs of everyone. Later Guttman, neurosurgeon and father of sport for the disabled, opened one of the first rehabilitation centers for people with spinal injuries. In addition to rehabilitation, he introduced a sport-therapy technique that guaranteed muscular and respiratory improvements to his patients. From this initiative were born the first Stoke Mandeville Games for disabled athletes, up to arrive to the current Paralympic Games, governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). In Italy, instead, they are governed by the Italian Paralympic and Experimental Sports Federation (FISPES) regarding physical and sensory disabilities, and by the Italian Paralympic Sports Federation of Relational Intellectuals (FISDIR) regarding intellectual-relational disability. Both are Paralympic Sports Federations affiliated to the Italian Paralympic Committee (CIP). In particular, the Paralympic Athletics in Italy follows the F.I.D.A.L. and I.A.A.F. (Italian Federation of Athletics and International Association of Athletics Federations) regulations, except for those Regulations to which have been made additions or modifications by the IPC. The rules used by the CIP are the result of an integration between the Regulations I.A.A.F., I.P.C. and CIP. In particular, the rules of the CIP are the translation of the current International Regulation of the IPC that has provided to adapt and / or integrate the Technical Regulations of the I.A.A.F. to athletics for the disabled. (CIP, 2006). As regards the Special Olympics, this is an international sports association that organizes the Special Olympic Games and is recognized by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

The official rules of the Special Olympics regulate all the special Olympic competitions. As an international sports program, Special Olympics has created these rules based upon IAAF rules for athletics (Special Olympics, 2018). In the Special Olympics Italy, association of the CONI, the local teams follow the training of the athletes in the respect of the international programs and through agreements stipulated with some of the major Italian sports promotion bodies. Hand in hand with the changes occurred over time to regulations, also the training methods of athletics, particularly sprints, have undergone variations and innovations that are still now subject of study, as in this research. It is natural that each category of disability provides a different type of training that meets their needs and it is for this reason that anyone who decides to take care of teaching/training of motor and sport activities must be able to make appropriate methodological-educational decisions (D'Isanto, Di Tore, 2016, Raiola 2015b). The aim is the identification of a new teaching/training method that can develop the skills of disabled and non-disabled athletes all together. According to inclusive approach in sports activities (Raiola, 2015a), it has to pursue the highest possible goal. …

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