Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Bullying in Social Media: An Effect Study of Cyber Bullying on the Youth

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Bullying in Social Media: An Effect Study of Cyber Bullying on the Youth

Article excerpt

Introduction

Bullying in social media is a heterogeneous and multifaceted phenomenon that instantly distresses the millions of people every year. "Bullying" refers to aggressive goal-oriented activity that creates problems for another person, who cannot certainly protect herself or himself, within the framework of power imbalance (Whitney & Smith, 1993; Smith & Sharp, 1994; Olweus, 1999; Rigby, 2002;Ringrose, 2008; Volk, Dane, & Marini, 2014). Traditionally, bullying happens in physical, verbal and relational forms (Smith, Madsen, & Moody, 1999; Archer & Coyne, 2005; Nylund et al., 2007) but, in recent times, online too, labelled as cyber bullying (Cassidy, Jackson, &Brown, 2009; Vandebosch& Cleemput, 2009; Wang, Iannotti, & Nansel, 2009; Fredstrom, Adams, & Gilman,2011) in which the aggression transpires through electronic means or information and communication technological devices (Slonje & Smith, 2008). The online victimization in latter case is often called as "cyber bullying" (Levy et al., 2012]. There are many ways of cyber bullying including, but not limited to, sending SMS via mobile or internet, commenting disparaging on a social media, showcasing disgusting pictures, or threatening.

The advancement in communication technologies has nurtured the cyber bullying with perturbation of internet, cell phones, and computers. Youngsters are very highly to be engaged in these technologies and victim of bullying. "Digital generation" is frequently used for reporting young generation (Buckingham, 2013). This idea of digital generation, by Tapscott (1998) , claimed that technology is reason behind change in the thinking. Conversely, Buckingham (2013) disapproves the discrimination based on technology and reported that social media is an aid to extend the face-to-face communication by means of gossiping, flirting, showing off, quarrelling and to mention a few. However, Papacharissi (2014) claimed that online technologies are reason of breaching the boundaries of private and public life. The self-confidence can be threatened by online streaming and disseminated to audience as source of amusement reason being "young people have always attentive to self-presentation, friendships have always been made, displayed and broken" (Livingstone, 2008). On an average, offline peer stakes offer both winning and losing, hence it is very likely that peer interaction sometime evolve the bullying online which usually take place offline. Advent of communication made daily life relations close and sometime exposing relational hostility (Weinstein & Selman, 2014).

Low and Espelage (2013) conducted a study in USA and reported that around 10 - 33% of youth aged between 11-19 years reported being victim of cyber bullying and 15% of youth reported themselves as accused of cyber bullying. On the same line, Li (2006) investigated cyber bullying in junior high school in Canada and reported that about 25% of students are victims of cyber bullying. In conjunction to that, Hemphill and Heerde (2014) carried out PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY 121

study in Australia and concluded that 5.1% of young people are accused of cyber bullying, 5% reported as being bullied online, and 9.5% reported both cyber bullying perpetration and being bullied. It is often observed that bulling has severe negative effects on person's life and makes it highly difficult to survive for the rest of life. These effects are very widely observed in the adolescents' emotional and psychological health concerns. One of the prominent and noticeable effect is absence from school very often and lower academic grades than counterparts (Ladd, Kochenderfer, and Coleman, 1997; Schwartz et al., 2005; Juvonen and Gross, 2008). The utmost and dangerous consequence of cyber bullying is suicide (Bauman, Toomey, & Walker, 2013). In this way, effects of cyber bullying in empirical terms is similar to face-to-face bullying. The cyber bullying cause degradation to personality trait such as lowered self-esteem, emotional alienation, poor academic attendance, poor learning outcomes, and diminish the capacity to form relationships (Englander, Mills, & McCoy, 2009; Hutzell & Payne, 2012; Kowalski & Limber, 2013). …

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