Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Impact of Social Self-Efficacy on Personal Growth of Adolescents Active in Sports

Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Impact of Social Self-Efficacy on Personal Growth of Adolescents Active in Sports

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Adolescence is the age of great changes - physical, cognitive, social, and emotional. The beliefs that young people hold about their capability to succeed in their endeavours are vital forces in the subsequent successes or failures they attain in future endeavours. These self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for motivation, well-being, and personal accomplishment in all areas of life. Self-efficacy is grounded in the larger theoretical framework of social cognitive theory. This theory postulates that human functioning results from interactions among personal factors (e.g., cognitions, emotions), behaviours, and environmental conditions (Bandura, 1986, 1997). In other words, selfefficacy determines one's actions and behaviour in the environment which he or she interacts. The environmental conditions directly and indirectly influence an individual's self-efficacy.

It is observed that low self-efficacy people avoid difficult tasks and set easy achievable targets. As a result, it may hamper the personal growth of an individual. People who demonstrate strong personal growth seek out opportunities to improve themselves across multiple life domains. In the other words self-efficacy and personal growth are interlinked in human behaviour. In this study adolescents' social self-efficacy as a variable has been examined as a predictor of their personal growth. The primary reason for specifically selecting those adolescents active in sports is because self-efficacy and performance had a positive relationship which is evident from various researches, sports articles and other published material.

The improvement of mood, energy and body image are some of the benefits of being active in sports. It is observed that greater stability and confidence in the physical self-perception, greater perceived interpersonal and physical competences are psychological gains of being regular in any sort of physical activity (Nicolosi et al., 2010). Nicolosi et al (2010) in their study on adolescents found that physical fitness may provide more positive social feedback and recognition from peer groups, and this will subsequently lead to improvement in an individual's self-image.

In a sample of 105 children ages 8 to 12 yr. Annesi (2017) noticed that participation in a physical activity intervention during afterschool care, based on social cognitive theory and incorporating instruction in self-management and self-regulatory skills, was associated with significant improvements in measures of exercise-related selfefficacy, perceived physical appearance, and physical self-concept over 12 weeks. Eime et al (2013) reviewed articles and concluded that sports are associated with improved self-esteem, social interaction and fewer depressive symptoms. The researcher gave the model depicting relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains and their positive association with sports participation.

Perceived social self-efficacy is an individual's confidence in his/her ability to engage in the social interactional tasks necessary to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships (Smith & Betz, 2000). Thus social self-efficacy includes behaviors such as negotiating interpersonal conflict, meeting new people, displaying assertiveness in social situations, developing friendships and interacting in group settings. Social selfefficacy is personal efficacy expectancies in social situations (Sherer et al., 1982). Gecas (1989) stated that social self-efficacy refers to individuals' beliefs that they are capable of initiating social contact and developing new friendships. Personal growth is an active and intentional involvement in the self-change process (Robitschek, 1998). Individuals towards personal growth seek out opportunities to improve themselves across multiple life domains.

There have been different approaches in investigation of psychological constructs in sportsman. The review of literature mentioned herein is particularly focused on aspects related to social self-efficacy and personal growth with respect to physical activity/sport activity. …

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