Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Basic Public Service Partnership Model Based on Gender Perspective in Makassar City, Indonesia

Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Basic Public Service Partnership Model Based on Gender Perspective in Makassar City, Indonesia

Article excerpt


Partnerships in public service-based or ""biased" gender equality is one of the central issues in the effort to empower the potential of Human Resources (HR) that supports equitable access and improving the quality of basic public services in the district/city in Indonesia (Akib et al., 2015; Wiweko & Nugroho, 2015). This issue is important given that more than half of Indonesia's population is female, with diverse and tiered educational backgrounds, ranging from elementary, secondary, to higher education, and many women are also alumni of graduate programs. Therefore, the government issued a regulation that regulates gender equality, at least to minimize the occurrence of gender discrimination in governance, development, community empowerment and public services. Law No. 39/1999 on Human Rights (Republik Indonesia, 1999) article 48 states that, " Women are entitled to education and instruction in all types, levels and educational path...". The same regulation is also described in the Minister of Home Affairs Regulation (Permendagri) No. 15 of 2008 on Gender Mainstreaming in National Development (Presiden, 2000).

Achieving a model of public service with gender justice is certainly must be based on the application of principles of good governance. The characteristics as well as the principles of good governance according to United Nations Development Program (UNDP) include: participation, legal certainty, transparency, responsiveness, fairness, community-oriented, efficiency and effectiveness, accountability, vision far ahead (Graham et al., 2003; Mardiasmo, 2002; Presiden, 2000).

Data in Indonesia shows that there is still an imbalance between women and men seen from the number of employees who work in various organizations/agencies, especially in government agencies, namely: at the Central level the number of men by 65 percent and women only 35 percent. Meanwhile, at the regional level the number of men was 82.2 percent and women by 17.68 percent. The percentage of illiterate women workers is 26.8 percent, indicating that more than twice the percentage of illiterate male workers (Salman, 2005). The control of productive assets in the form of land, in urban areas is women 14.3 percent and men equal to 76.9 percent. In the periphery, women controlled 17.4 percent and men by 67.4 percent. In rural areas women account for 20.4 percent and males of 66.7 percent (Noerdin et al., 2006). Phenomenon and data in Makassar City show the same thing, for example Civil Servant/State Civil Apparatus in a section of Regional Secretariat is woman 93 person and men 141 people (Niswaty et al., 2015).

The assumption of this research is the level of quality of human development which is either in the same direction or linear with good governance quality. Similarly, it is assumed that good governance quality is linear with the quality of gender equality in the delivery of public services. Based on these assumptions and reflecting on the facts or data available, it can be stated that the State of Indonesia has failed to improve the quality of human development and one of the causes is "gender inequality" in basic public service delivery (Akib et al., 2015). The assumption is parallel to the good governance characteristic of UNDP which is characteristic of the "principle of equality and justice."

Based on the background of the proposed problem, this research article aims to analyze and explain the prototype of the partnership model in the implementation of basic public services (education, health and creative economic) based on gender equality perspective in Makassar City.


Role theory describes the social interaction in the terminology of actors who play by what is set in the organization by the culture. Based on this theory, then the role expectation is a shared understanding that leads us to behave in everyday life. According to this theory, when a person has a particular role, such as a lawyer, doctor, teacher, parent, child, woman, man, etc. …

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