Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

The Community of Inquiry as a Framework in Student Teachers' Music Education

Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

The Community of Inquiry as a Framework in Student Teachers' Music Education

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Today's young people are often deeply immersed in using digital technologies in their everyday lives. A great challenge is how best to take advantage of the digital music technology in music education, involving students with different musical backgrounds, with the different readiness of music technology and how digital music technology can be used in different learning environments. Jonathan Savage (2009) introduces two models of musical practice with ICT. The first model is The Extrinsic Model and the second model is The Intrinsic Model. In the first model, the musical keyboard is linked to the computer software. Using digital devices, students study the elements of traditional Western music that have roots in the European music of the mid-eighteenth century. The second model focuses on the opportunity to use a standard personal computer as a musical instrument. This means that sound itself becomes the source for many new ways to make music through a process of exploration.

In the study at hand, the main focus is the extrinsic model because in this study most of the student teachers are novices at music practice. In the Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (FNBE, 2014), music as a subject can be considered a combination of the following approaches: singing, listening, playing musical instruments, composing or connecting music with for example physical movement, picture and/or technology. According to the FNBE, one of the aims in music education in Finnish schools is to help students understand the basic principles of the music symbol system with the help of musicing. (FNBE, 2014). In practice, this means that student teachers should learn among other things the music symbol system of traditional Western music.

Digitalization has become a part of Finnish education from elementary schools to universities. Blended learning provides solutions on how to create e-learning environments and how to make them useful for students as well as teachers. The concept of blended learning is understood as an educational combination that combines the traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning (Bonk & Graham, 2012; Crawford, 2017; Garrison, 2017; Graham, 2006; Kerres & de Witt, 2003; Picciano, 2014; Watson, 2008) Pedagogically, blended learning combines the most effective aspects of face-to-face learning experiences and online learning experiences with good technology devices (Ruthman & Hebert, 2012; Pike & Shoemaker, 2013; Tobias, 2013).

The study presented in this paper was conducted at the University of Lapland in Finland in spring 2017. At the faculty of education, music education for every student teacher is offered during the first academic year. The students who participated in the research were students of the primary school teacher training program.

2. Problem statement

In the future, techonology will shape more and more independent music learning. Digital technologies are obvious in our daily lives as we use applications on our computers, tablets and smartphones to exhange information to communicate with our friends (Gardner & Davis, 2013; Turkle, 2011). Digital devices of different kinds allow teachers and students almost seamless access to musical resources (Purves, 2012). Research shows that online electronic devices can support student learning in a variety of subject areas, including music, especially when digital tools are designed to support student self-regulation (Brook & Upitis, 2015). Today's music learners live in an environment with new technologies, which have made it possible for even the most novice of composers to write music with software like Apple's GarageBand. GarageBand has provided essential software for creating music without the demands of reading traditional notation and playing a traditional music instrument. For students and teachers, Apple's GarageBand provides an unusually simple music production tool including software instruments and a sound library. …

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