Academic journal article Physical Educator

Comparison of the Command and Inclusion Styles of Physical Education Lessons to Teach Volleyball in Middle School

Academic journal article Physical Educator

Comparison of the Command and Inclusion Styles of Physical Education Lessons to Teach Volleyball in Middle School

Article excerpt

In learning activities, the most important responsibility no doubt belongs to the teachers. Teachers should convey the skills they want to transfer to students in the most suitable way. Physical education courses provide socialization, health improvement, and skills in sport, too. When the teaching methods encourage active participation, students learn better and faster, enjoy the activities, and show more interest in the course.

The main aim of a physical education teaching program is to contribute to individuals' physical, kinesthetic, emotional, and social progress, and to promote participation in physical activity throughout life. For this aim to be actualized, students should be gradually introduced to new physical activities and should be made aware of their improvement. For this reason, it has been suggested that a constructivist approach that accounts for diverse learning styles should be employed in developing activities (Koçak & Hürmeriç, 2006).

From preschool through middle school, participating in sport and physical education plays an important role in improving the physical, emotional, social, and mental characteristics of students. It is hoped that teachers' support and advisory role helps students to improve movement competence, which helps them to acquire active and healthy lifestyles. At the same time, physical education and sport should also help students improve their thinking, social, and self-management skills. Trying various new types of physical activities and improving movement skills is a priority.

For students in fifth to seventh grade, physical and mental development through physical activity is even more important than developing competitive sports skills, which can be worked on from eighth grade onwards (MEB, 2006). The scientific literature suggests that students in this age group need at least 1 hr/day of physical activity to keep up their health. For this reason, it is important that students develop habits of regular and willing participation in physical activities. From around 11 years old, students should begin to develop specialized movement skills, while developing the main sport-related movement skills between ages of 12 and 14.

The teaching methods used in this study differ from those currently prevalent in physical education. They were developed by Mosston and Ashworth (2001) and include teacher-centered and student-centered approaches. The full spectrum of presentation methods is made up of the command style, practice style, reciprocal style, and self-check methods; the spectrum of invention methods is made up of the inclusion, guided discovery, divergent, individual, learner-initiated, and self-teaching styles (MEB, 2013). This study focuses on the command and inclusion styles. The command style focuses on the relationship between a stimulus provided by the teacher and the instant and direct reaction of the student. All decisions about place, stance, start time, speed and rhythm, stop time, time and distance are taken by the teacher, and the student's movements follow accordingly. The inclusion style is characterized by the student's access to the teaching process and active learning. At the preparation stage of the course, the teacher is active and then during the practice and conclusion stages, the student is active. Considering individual differences, student participation is customized according to level of preparedness so that a positive learning environment is created and success achieved with as many students as possible (Demirhan & Altay, 2001).

Other teaching methods can be described as traditional teaching methods' Some of these methods, which are about cognition, and which may be preferred for some teaching-learning activities, include computed teaching, discussions, panels, opposing panel, symposiums, forums, cluster studies, circle discussions, brain storming, showing projections, case study examination, workshops, seminars, educational plays, flash cards, Q&A, group or team play, field trips, homework, and interviews (MEB, 2006). …

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