Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Intensity of Physical Education Lessons in Children According to the Type of Activity: Soccer, Badminton, Aerobics and Motor Skills

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Intensity of Physical Education Lessons in Children According to the Type of Activity: Soccer, Badminton, Aerobics and Motor Skills

Article excerpt

Introduction

The population's lifestyle has been modified by social progress and the development of the welfare state. While most of these changes are associated with social improvements, the hypokinetic behavior of the population can lead to short- and long-term health problems. Inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and improper diet are some of the most common examples that can be found in adults as well as children. The lack of physical activity and unbalanced diet are some of the most influential factors in the development of obesity. Currently, the use of new technologies as a form of fun, poor diet and low level of physical activity has a negative effect on the demand for physical activity by children (Pate, Flynn, & Dowda, 2016). These changes include reductions in active transport increased time spent doing other sedentary activities (McDonald, 2007; Van der Ploeg, Merom, Corpuz & Bauman, 2008; Roberts, Foehr, Rideout & Brodie, 1999).

For that reason, childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century (WHO, 2008). In this sense, the numbers of studies about physical activity and obesity in children have been increased significantly in the last years (Ogden, Carroll, Kit & Flegal, 2012).

For several years, the problem of overweight and obese children and adolescents has been quickly increasing at a global level. In countries like Canada or Australia, the percentage of overweight population has become higher than in the United States. Spain ranks third in Europe in overweight children aged between 7 and 17 years. (Aranceta, Serra, Foz-Sala & Moreno, 2003; Lobstein & Frelut, 2005; Robertson, Lobstein & Knai, 2007; Serra, Ribas-Barba, Aranceta, Pérez-Rodrigo, Saavedra & Peña-Quintana, 2009).

According to Strong et al (2005) school-age youth should take part in a 60-minutes physical activity five days a week. Regarding exercise intensity, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends an intensity between 40-89 % of heart rate reserve (HRR), called Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). These recommendations have resulted in an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and, therefore, they can help prevent the rise of overweight and obesity rates (American College of Sports Medicine, 2011). International results from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study show that one third of children do not comply with these recommendations. In Spain, the values of weekly physical activity (3.68 days per week) are lower than the international average (3.80 days per week) (Moreno, Muñoz, Pérez & Sánchez, 2005).

Concerning exercise intensity, Sallis & Patrick (1994) suggested that 50 % of the Physical Education class time should involve moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in order to improve cardiovascular fitness. Other studies have followed this recommendations and guidelines. (Baquet, Berthoin & Van Praagh, 2002; Aznar & Webster, 2006; Dudley, Okely, Cotton, Pearson, & Caputi, 2011; Marques, Ferro, Diniz & Carreiro da Costa, 2011; Howe, Freedson, Alazán, Feldman & Osganian, 2012; Stratton, 1997).

Due to its validity and reliability, a heart rate monitor is probably the most common objective method to assess children physical activity levels as well as for assessing MVPA (Aranceta, Serra, Foz-Sala & Moreno, 2007; Durant et al, 1993; Ekelund, 2001; Sirard & Pate, 2001; Wang, Pereira & Mota, 2005; Laurson, Brown, Cullen & Dennis, 2008; Duncan, Badland & Schofield, 2009).

Along this research line, Kulinna, Martin, Lai & Kliber (2003) found that the heart rate pattern in PE varied depending on gender and activity. Wang et al. (2005) showed that only 30 % of physical education lessons time was related to MVPA in 13- and 14-year-old Portuguese children. The results of Fairclough & Stratton (2005) were similar after analyzing 102 British adolescents aged 12-16 years. …

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