Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Whole-Body Electrostimulation and Acroyoga Based Exercise Programme on Blood Pressure in a Group of Young Women

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effects of Whole-Body Electrostimulation and Acroyoga Based Exercise Programme on Blood Pressure in a Group of Young Women

Article excerpt


Hypertension is one of the risk factors increasing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Physical activity has been established to provide many health benefits in both cardiovascular patients and the general population. Nevertheless, up to 31 % world population do not meet the current minimum recommendation on physical activity (Kohl et al., 2012) At the especial risk of hypertension development as a result of the sedentary lifestyle there are people with a long-term spinal cord injury (Adriaansen et al., 2017; Chase, 2004). However, novel forms of exercise provide the health benefits of recommended physical activity for people who are unable or unwilling to undertake the conventional forms of exercise. Post-exercise hypotension, caused by a persistent reduction in vascular resistance, mediated by the autonomic nervous system and vasodilator substances, has been observed in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals.

Furthermore, the post-exercise hypotension has been associated with after exercise plasma volume recovery and with long-term adaptations to exercise training (Halliwill, 2001). WB-EMS stimulates all main muscle groups simultaneously during a moderate exercise and can be considered as a time-efficient option to high-intensity resistance exercise improving the general strength (Wolfgang Kemmler et al., 2016). Furthermore, WB-EMS affects positively the body composition and fitness parameters by enhancing the energy expenditure and by improving the isometric strength (Boccia et al., 2017; Maggioni et al., 2010), and it has been observed to be an effective method for cardio-metabolic risk factors prevention in previous studies (Wolfgang Kemmler, Kohl, Freiberger, Sieber, & von Stengel, 2018; Wittmann et al., 2016).

Yoga exercise is a combination of asana (physical postures), pranayama (breathing techniques) and meditation influencing both, physiological and psychological health factors. In previous studies, yoga has been reported to have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease risk factors including blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (Innes, Bourguignon, & Taylor, 2005; Satin, Linden, & Millman, 2014). Furthermore, a regular yoga practice was observed to be as effective as a medical therapy in controlling BP in patients with hypertensio n (Murugesan, Govindarajulu, & Bera, 2000). Acroyoga, which is getting widespread since 2003, combines the yoga practice of asana, acrobatics, and Thai yoga massage, concentrating more on strength and balance elements than others yoga types and the connection and trust as it is partner-based ("How to Find the Right Yoga Style for You: Explore Types of Yoga - Yoga Journal," n.d.). It's socializing, and health is improving aspects are also used in lessons of Therapeutic flying, acro yoga classes for people with a spinal cord injury. Additionally, acroyoga provides benefits such as vertebral column stretching, joint mobilization or movement coordination, especially needed in the wheelchair population. The only requirement for the lesson is a triceps muscle functionality.

Both, traditional and resistance exercise, as well as novel methods, e.g., WB-ESM, which provide an alternative for patients unable or unwilling to undertake the conventional exercise (Banerjee, Caulfield, Crowe, & Clark, 2009), were described to have a beneficial effect as prevention of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the BP response after ten weeks of acro yoga and WB-EMS training programme.

Material & methods

An experimental approach to the problem

This study aimed to investigate the effect of electromyostimulation (EMS) and acroyoga exercise programme (AYEP) in a group of healthy young untrained women. We supposed that EMS would be beneficial for lowering BP levels the same as AYEP.


Our sample consisted of 28 healthy young non-smokers and non-sportive women (< 60 minutes regular physical activity per week) (mean±S. …

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