Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

A Study of Employee Engagement and Its Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Hotel Industry

Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

A Study of Employee Engagement and Its Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Hotel Industry

Article excerpt

Introduction

Employees are considered as one of the soundest assets of the organization. They are the backbone of any organization that uses physical and financial resources to achieve organizational objectives (Christian et al., 2011). But getting the right employees for the right job has become highly competitive for the organizations because of the talent crunch, a result of globalization. Every employer is struggling to attract the best talent, but attracting the talent does not mean that they will engage with the organization. Employee Engagement (EE) is the involvement, passion, and dedication of the employees towards the work (Sarangi, 2012). It is defined as the level of commitment of employees to attain organizational vision and mission (Gupta, 2015). According to Sadiqe (2014), EE is an agreement of the employees towards their organization and their ethics. It is the fusion of cognitive, emotional and behavioral aspects of an individual which induces an employee to be attentive or absorbed in the performance of their roles (Saks, 2006). According to Macey and Schneider (2008), engagement has three levels.

Level 1: Engaged: Engaged employees feel connected with their organizations, they work with full passion and innovation to take their organizations upward.

Level 2: Not Engaged: These types of employees are the sleepwalkers, who come to work without any energy and do not perform their tasks properly.

Level 3: Actively disengaged: These types of employees are non-fertile for the organizations, they always crib about the shortcomings of the organizations and keep complaining to their coworkers.

The success of any organization depends on the performance and work engagement of its employees (Lee and Ok, 2016). Many studies have exhibited that EE positively influences the performance of the employees (Kim et al., 2013; and Truss et al., 2013). But these studies lack in showing the relationship of EE with the discretionary efforts or extra role behavior performed by the employees beyond their specified job role. This extra role, noncompulsory effort, which is not identified by the formal reward system is called Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) (Currall, 1988). Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to study the relationship between EE and OCB. Even though we have got many studies examining this question, very few have focused on the hotel industry. Underlying this research appeal is the opinion that OCB is more likely to attain success in the workplace.

Literature Review

Employee Engagement

EE indicates the readiness to devote the physical, emotional and cognitive resources to the work (Christian et al., 2011). This definition shows the essence of Kahn's work, recognized as the earliest work on engagement (Kahn, 1990 and 1992), which describes engaged employees as those who can work physically, cognitively and emotionally while accomplishing their role in the organization. Gallup Organization is also the popular name associated with the concept of EE because of their book First, Break All the Rules. This book describes an engaged employee as the one who is eager and innovative towards the work to take the organization upwards (Gallup, 2006). EE can be seen in two ways: EE with work (Schaufeli et al., 2002; and Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004) and EE with the organization (Saks, 2006). Work engagement is the accomplishment of vigor, dedication, and absorption towards the work (Schaufeli et al., 2002; and Karatepe and Olugbade, 2009). Vigor is the spirit shown by the employees, dedication is pride in work and getting too much involved in the work. Absorption represents the level of concentration in work (Burke et al., 2009). Work engagement is also called job engagement (Rich et al., 2010). Organization engagement is the connection between employees and their organization (Saks, 2006). Since EE is a vast concept, several constructs have been used to measure it.

Table 1 shows the scales and constructs of EE and, work engagement, as envisaged by various researchers. …

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