Academic journal article Italian Sociological Review

Economical Empowerment Index of Posdaya as Participatory of Community Empowerment Programe in Indonesia

Academic journal article Italian Sociological Review

Economical Empowerment Index of Posdaya as Participatory of Community Empowerment Programe in Indonesia

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

Improving human quality as a development resource is a major prerequisite for improving people's welfare. The main objective of development in Indonesia with poverty alleviation priorities, determining the proportion of the poor in 2015 is reduced to half or 8.2% of the population. The decision is a determination and government policy that should be supported by all agencies and institutions of development. In order for the effort to work properly, it is necessary to follow the development of family empowerment movement which is carried out intensively. Economic development that will result in economic growth needs to involve community participation for balanced development and achieving targets. Economic development must be matched by increased social participation. In this case, social advocacy also needs to be done so that development commitment is stronger (Suyono, 2007).

Community participation in development activities will be realized if efforts are made to develop and empower communities according to potential and ability. According to Suharto (2005) empowerment refers to the ability of vulnerable and vulnerable people/groups/communities, so that they have the power or ability to: a) fulfill their basic needs so that they have freedom, in the sense not only free to express opinions but free from hunger, stupidity and pain, b) reaching productive resources that enable them to increase their incomes and obtain the goods and services they need, c) participate in the development process and decisions that affect them. Characteristics of people who have been empowered by Sumardjo and Saharuddin (2004) are as follows: a) able to understand themselves and their potential, b) able to plan (anticipate future change conditions) and self-directed, c) have the power to negotiate and cooperate mutually profitable with adequate 'bargaining power', d) responsible for his own actions.

Posdaya is a new idea to welcome government recommendations to build human resources through active family participation. The empowerment process is prioritized on improving the ability of families to work hard at alleviating ignorance, laziness and poverty in a broad sense. Target of the intended activity is the implementation of joint efforts so that every family has the ability to carry out eight family functions.

This study aims to: (1) Define the definition, concept and construct of Posdaya economic empowerment index; (2) Develope a measuring instrument of Posdaya economic empowerment index; (3) Analyze results and interpret the Posdaya economic empowerment index.

2.Literature review

2.1Community development and empowerment

In community development, according to Ife (2002) community empowerment is one of the principles that should also be the goal of community development. Thus, it is clear that community development and community empowerment are an inseparable unity. Verhagen (1996), as cited by Hikmat (2004) formulated eight instruments to assess the implementation of community empowerment activities. The instruments are considered to be helpful in formulating a community empowerment program and providing an overview of the process of community empowerment.

There is a wide range of understanding of social mapping derived from a word in English, Social Mapping. There are two notions of social mapping: first, as a method or mode of work, and secondly, as a product. As a method, social mapping involves a series of ways and processes to describe the physical, social, and networking conditions of the community that are the subject of the study (Bhattacharjee, 2001). As a product, social mapping is the end result of a mapping process in the form of picture (exposure, description) or map (picture or visual) about the social condition of the community which is the subject of the study. This picture or map will show the proportion, composition, distribution, and relationships of the various categories that exist in the community, including social structures and institutions within an area of study. …

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