Academic journal article International Journal of Psychology Research

Psycho-Social Problems of Adolescents in Relation to Life Skills and Social Support

Academic journal article International Journal of Psychology Research

Psycho-Social Problems of Adolescents in Relation to Life Skills and Social Support

Article excerpt

Adolescence is widely defined as the time in life when the developing individual attains the skills and attributes necessarily to become a productive and reproductive adult (Rani and Samuel, 2014). During this period, various problems are faced by adolescents as this phase is characterized by rapid psychological changes. Some key issues and concerns observed among adolescents include those relating to forming self-image, managing emotions, building relationships, strengthening social skills and dealing with or resisting pressure (Srivastava, 2016). The term psycho-social reflects both the under controlled, externalizing or behavioral problems such as conduct disorders, educational difficulties, substance abuse, hyperactivity etc. and the over controlled, internalizing or emotional problems like anxiety, depression etc. (Ahmad et al., 2007). During adolescence, the children suffer from various forms of dysfunctions and conflicts, which ultimately impair normal psychosocial development aggravating psychosocial problems (Bista et al., 2016). UNICEF (2006) defines Life skills as -a behaviour change or behaviour development approach designed to address a balance of three areas: knowledge, attitude and skills. The UNICEF definition is based on research evidence that suggests that shifts in risk behaviour are unlikely if knowledge, attitudinal and skills based competency are not addressed. Life Skills are essentially those abilities that help promote mental well-being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life. With Life Skills, one is able to explore alternatives, weigh pros and cons and make rational decisions in solving each problem or issue as it arises. Social support is generally defined as a range of interpersonal relationships or connections that have an impact on an individual's functioning, and generally includes support provided by individuals and by social institutions (Barker, 2007).

Social support can be emotional, instrumental, financial or informational (Reevyl and Maslach, 2001) that people who are involved in supportive social relationships experience benefits in terms of their health, morale, and coping. Conversely, low levels of social support have been repeatedly linked to poor physical and mental health outcomes (Cohen et al., 2000). Life skills have been observed to have a significant impact on psychological and emotional well-being of individuals and improving their quality of life (Visser, 2005; Madnawat et al., 2007; Graves et al., 2011; Deshmukh, 2012). Social support was found to be one of the protective factors for students that could reduce the amount of psychological problems (Nahid and Sarkis, 1994; Steinberg and Darling, 1994). The impact of psychological problems could be reduced if the students have good and sufficient social support. This is because the existence of social support may assist students in dealing with various stressors in their academic life and adjustment process (Rawson et al., 1994; Lakey and Cohen, 2000). Thus the teachers should be provided with necessary knowledge to impart life skill education to the adolescents so as to enable them to deal with adolescents having psychosocial problems.

Objectives of the Study

1. To study psycho-social problems among adolescents in relation to gender differences.

2. To study psycho-social problems among adolescents in relation to life skills.

3. To study psycho-social problems among adolescents in relation to social support.

Method

The study was conducted through descriptive method of research.

Sample

The population of the present study was adolescents of Sangrur district of Punjab, studying in IXth class in Government schools affiliated with Punjab School Education Board (PSEB). A stratified random sample of 300 adolescents (142 females and 158 males) was selected for the conduct of the present study.

Tools

The following tools were selected and used by the investigators in the present study:

1. …

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