Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Role of Self-Compassion in Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Well-Being among Working Men and Women

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Role of Self-Compassion in Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Well-Being among Working Men and Women

Article excerpt

Work and family play an important role in an individual's life. With the increased demands at work and changing gender roles, employees, today, are more concerned about how to maintain a balance between the demands of work and family roles. They can face difficulties in keeping a balance between the demanding roles in the spheres of work and family which has been referred to as work-family conflict (Leineweber, Baltzer, Hanson, & Westerlund, 2013). Being originated from role theory (Merton, 1957), this construct has been playing important role in research in the area of work-family interface. According to Greenhaus and Beutell (1985), WFC is "a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible" (p. 77). This definition hints at a bidirectional nature of relation between the domains of work and family (Frone, Yardley, & Markel, 1997) which means that demands at work can effect an individual's family-life and the family-life can also interfere with the work-life.

Most studies about work-family conflict have recognized that it is a significant threat for the health and well-being of an individual (Winefield, Boyd, & Winefield, 2014) and job-related outcomes (Zaman, Haque, & Nawaz, 2014). Certain outcomes related to job, such as organizational commitment (Rehman, 2015) and job satisfaction (Bruck, Allen, & Spector, 2002) have been reported to get affected by workfamily conflict. Similarly, various health issues have been linked with work-family conflict, such as physical ailments (Lu, 2007); depression and anxiety (Obidoa, Reeves, Warren, Reisine, & Cherniak, 2011); decreased life satisfaction (Adams, King, & King, 1996); and lowered Psychological Well-Being (PWB; Panatik, Badri, Rajab, Rahman, & Shah, 2011). In short, the research evidence strongly suggests that workfamily conflict is related to the employee-health and well-being. According to Deci and Ryan (2008), the construct of PWB includes both the hedonic perspective (i.e., positive affective states like happiness) and the eudaimonic perspective (i.e., optimum level of effective functioning in one's individual or social life).

As the negative impact of work-family conflict (WFC) on psychological well-being (PWB) has been well documented, now with the emergence of positive psychology, the focus of researchers has shifted on identifying the possible moderator variables vis-a-vis wellbeing and WFC. For instance, certain personality variables have been found to buffer the adverse effects of WFC on exhaustion and depression (Kinnunen, Vermulst, Gerris, & Mäkikangas, 2003). Social support and coping have also been found to moderate the interaction of WFC and strain outcomes (Brough & O'Driscoll, 2005; Viswesvaran, Sanchez, & Fisher, 1999). The present study is an attempt to increase the variety of buffering variables in connection to WFC and well-being by highlighting the role of Self-Compassion (SC).

SC is a newly emerging positive construct, which has been defined as treating oneself with care and compassion in the face of difficulties, some personal failures or inadequacies (Brach, 2003; Salzberg, 1997). According to Neff (2003a, 2003b), SC consists of three main modules including a) self-kindness versus self-judgment; b) common humanity versus isolation; and c) mindfulness versus overidentification. SC has been found to be positively related to an individual's well-being (Neff & Faso, 2015). Compared to Neff's (2003a) perspective, Gilbert's (2005) social mentalities theory asserts that an individual adopts the soothing/calming system of compassion through a healthy bond with parents or a significant other, which then promotes the development of self-soothing behaviour, empathy, a healthy tolerance for distress, and a motivation to care for themselves and ultimately others (Gilbert, 2009).

Rationale of the Study

Pakistan is a developing nation with a wide range of industries contributing to its growth, out of these, telecommunication is a prominent sector boosting growths of above 30% annually (as cited in Mansoor, Fida, Nasir, & Ahmad, 2011). …

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