Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Number of Players Manipulation Effect on Space and Concentration Principles of the Game Representativeness during Football Small-Sided and Conditioned Games

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Number of Players Manipulation Effect on Space and Concentration Principles of the Game Representativeness during Football Small-Sided and Conditioned Games

Article excerpt

Published online:Februry 28, 2019

(Accepted for publication January 28, 2019)

Abstract:

Introduction

Training programs of team sports, like association football, frequently use small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) for improving players' performance on tactical, technical and physical competences, concurrently. In relation to the full-game version, SSCGs increase players' involvement with specific skills and similar situations by manipulating rules and number of players on reduced pitch areas (Casamichana & Castellano, 2010; S. Hill-Haas, Dawson, Impellizzeri, & Coutts, 2011).

In the last decade or so, several studies have addressed the physiological, physical and technical components of SSCGs (e.g., (Abrantes, Nunes, Macäs, Leite, & Sampaio, 2012; Dellal et al., 2012; Harrison, Gill, Kinugasa, & Kilding, 2013; S. V. Hill-Haas, Dawson, Coutts, & Rowsell, 2009; Kelly & Drust, 2009; Koklu, Asci, Kocak, Alemdaroglu, & Dundar, 2011; Rampinini et al., 2007). Nevertheless, despite SSCGs have been widely used by team sports coaches for shaping individual and collective tactical behaviours, there are lacking evidence-based guidelines to support their coaching practices.

SSCGs offer several possibilities for manipulation of key informational task constraints (e.g. number of players, pitch dimension, etc.) to shape the emergence of co-adaptive team behaviours through exploration of performance solutions. In this sense, recent studies have investigated the dynamics of interpersonal interactions in team sports supported by key informational constrains (e.g.,Correia et al., 2012; B. Travassos, Davids, Araújo, & Esteves, 2013; Vilar, Araújo, Davids, & Button, 2012).

From a constraints-led approach (Keith Davids, Button, & Bennett, 2007; Newell, 1986), behaviours emerge from the dynamical interaction between each individual, the environment and task constraints (Brymer & Davids, 2013; Chow et al., 2006; K. Davids, Araujo, Correia, & Vilar, 2013; Vilar et al., 2012). Changing the environmental conditions (e.g., playing on wet or dry surfaces, under heat or cold temperatures, etc.), a task's specific constraints (e.g., number of players, pitch dimensions, rules, etc.) or the individual characteristics (e.g., technique or fitness skills) may lead to the emergence of distinct interactive behavioural patterns. By manipulating key informational constrains, practitioners stimulate a continuous co-adaption of players towards specific intended goals, by constantly (re) orientating themselves through perception of the contextual information emerging from their interaction with the competitive environment (K. Davids et al., 2013).

One of the main concerns of practitioners when planning their teaching and training programs is to secure that the modified game conditions through which they intend to enhance the acquisition of tactical skills and decision-making represent real contexts of regular matches and promote similar performance behaviours. In this sense, SSCGs-based training programs should promote representative relationships of players with key sources of information from the performance environment (Bruno Travassos, Duarte, Vilar, Davids, & Araújo, 2012) and the emergence of similar performance behaviours (i.e., action fidelity) (Duarte Araújo, Davids, & Passos, 2007; Stoffregen, Bardy, Smart, & Pagulayan, 2003).

The concept of representativeness (Brunswik, 1955) refers the actions and decisions of actors (in our case, players) in a task should be supported by information that represent the natural environment in which they usually perform and the decision is made (i.e., the game) (D. Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006; Bruno Travassos et al., 2012).

Some researchers have been studying team ranges in formal football games and in SSCGs to provide information and understanding of tactical aspects (Duarte et al., 2013; Folgado, Lemmink, Frencken, & Sampaio, 2014). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.