Academic journal article Library Philosophy and Practice

Contribution of UK Open Access Repositories to OpenDOAR

Academic journal article Library Philosophy and Practice

Contribution of UK Open Access Repositories to OpenDOAR

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION:

Prior to the emergence of digital publications, printed materials were the main mode of distribution for scholarly communication. The system of scholarly communications that existed for hundreds of years has been driven by the learned societies and their member communities around the world to publish findings of their research inquiries and scientific discoveries. Scholarly communication emerged with the publication of the first journal in 1665 (Journal Des Scavans and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society). In 1960's and 1970's explosion in scholarly writing and research took place. Gradually book chapters, research monographs, conference proceedings began to be published at regular intervals. The continuing explosion lead to information overload making it difficult to purchase, store, and search print material. This traditional publishing model had many other problems also. During the past two decades due to advancement of IT and emergence of World Wide Web, scholarly communication has undergone a veritable revolution which give rise to rapid shift from print-only publishing to parallel print and electronic publishing with the help of which user can access, store and search broader range of journal article as compared to that of print era. But online publishing does not mean publications are freely available. Apart from technology publishers also play the most important and credible role in scholarly publishing lifecycle. Publishers not only facilitate scholarly communications but can also be barriers for the same. They charge users and libraries for subscription and provide access to only those who have subscribed to their journals. Due to increasing price and low budget, academic and research institutions can't afford subscription to all needed journals. Libraries are struggling to keep pace with these increases by transferring a bigger portion of their budget to journal subscription and by relying on "big deals" and consortia discounts (Albert, 2006).

All libraries with a result have lost ground and have been compelled into cancellation of critical materials. Merging of numerous publishers also led to an increase in prices as competition decreased. Moreover, research at universities and other institutions is usually funded by taxes paid by the general public, and when they are published people do not have free access to the research findings and have to pay again for the same. Scholars also have been required to surrender copyright to the publisher, thus limiting subsequent use of their own publications (Guernsey, 1998). These publishers generally don't pay scholars for their publications. They write for impact rather than money which help them to secure carrier points (Suber, 2012). In 1990s Scholars also realized that making use of WWW help to 'extent research, enrich education, share the learning of rich with poor and vice versa, makes this literature as useful as it can be, also lay a foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge (Oppenheim, 2008). Growing dissatisfaction with this traditional scholarly communications system has gained global attention, with academic research institutions, governments, professional organizations, highprofile scientists, and the publishing community finally taking action to address these problems which resulted in the idea of providing free online publications and declarations of an open access (OA) movement.

Open Access

The four key properties which define OA is that it is digital, online accessible, free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions (Suber, 2015). It is 'barrier-free" access which removes two major hurdles of accessing scholarly writings i.e. "tag barrier" and "copyright barrier". This means that readers and libraries can access different documents, research findings, and other literature easily and are not bound by their ability to pay or by budget of their institution and have fewer restrictions on their use, reproduction, citation, and onward transmission. …

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