Academic journal article Journal of Entrepreneurship Education

Management Model Ecosystem Mangrove Based on Business Feasibility

Academic journal article Journal of Entrepreneurship Education

Management Model Ecosystem Mangrove Based on Business Feasibility

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Background

Indonesia is one of the second largest archipelagic countries in the world, has the second longest coastline in the world after Canada is about 81,000 km and has a large island and a small island of approximately 17,508 pieces (Dahuri et al., 1996) In addition, according to Supriharyono (2005) has the fifth highest biodiversity in the world, Indonesia is geographically located on the equator between 6°N and 11°S, 95°W to 141°E. The elevation of Indonesia has the highest mountain less than 5000 m above sea level and has a marine trough of approximately 5000 m below sea level.

Along the coastline, there are mangrove ecosystems that have high biodiversity both flora and fauna that have economic value either directly or indirectly. However, these mangrove ecosystems have been damaged both in quantity in the form of extent and quality in the form of biodiversity decline. Converting mangrove forests into ponds is economically profitable, but there are huge ecological losses. The results of the study indicate that the production of ponds from mangrove forest conversion to ponds is only IDR. 20,607,000, ha-1 th-1, but there is an average ecological loss of IDR. 31,142,002 ha-1 th-1 (Asbar, 2007).

The ecological function of the mangrove ecosystem mentioned above is still a fraction of other ecological functions compared to previous research results such as (Yulianda et al., 2010) reaching 7.8 billion ha-1 th-1, then (Sambu, 2018) reaching IDR. 6,075,892,844, ha-1 th-1. The results of a study conducted in the Tongke-Tongke mangrove ecosystem in the same year only analyzed the ecological function of the mangrove ecosystem from the ecological function of the physical as a tornado, as a deterrent to the salt water interaction to the mainland, and as the abrasion deterrent of the ocean wave not including the physical function for building materials and firewood.

According to Sofyan (2001), mangrove forest area in Indonesia in 1982 reached 5,209,543 and in 1999 remained 2,346,414. The result of the analysis indicated that 17 years there was a decrease of 2,863,120 ha or 54%. Even the current area of 2,346,423 ha or 46% is mostly in critical condition in the quality of biodiversity decrease, because the reforestation done so far tends to be dominated by one type of rhizophora reaching 86.83%, while the remaining 13.17% divided into bruguira, avicennia and senneratia (Sambu, 2013).

One model of mangrove ecosystem management is silvofishery as a solution to prevent damage to mangrove ecosystems both in Indonesia and other countries for sustainable mangrove ecosystem function that is economically profitable for generations still present and sustainable for generations to come. Indicators of a business are said to be economically profitable if the results of the analysis of Benefit-Cost Ratio or BCR>1, and said to be sustainable if the results of environmental capacity analysis of the availability of resources greater than the needs of organisms to live and develop naturally or S>D.

The ratio of mangrove area and fish pond to the management of silvofishery has been done several studies both institutionally and individually including:

1. Perhutani (1998) suggested 80% mangrove and 20% ponds, but the result of this study is considered too give the portion of mangrove ratio too big.

2. The results of Zuna (1998) study suggested a ratio of 54% of mangroves and 46 ponds.

3. Nur (2002) suggested a 50% mangrove ratio and 50% pond.

Some previous studies concluded that the proportion of mangrove area is greater than the proportion of pond area in silvofishery ponds, which is between 50% to 80%, while the proportion of ponds is between 20% to 50%. By looking at the varying proportions of the area, there is a need for further research that can find the proportion ratio between mangrove and ponds that are optimally and sustainably. …

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