Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Governance and Internalisation in Social Policy: Definition, Concepts and Causes

Academic journal article Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues

Governance and Internalisation in Social Policy: Definition, Concepts and Causes

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

From literature review, it can be seen that social policy generally combines different disciplines such as economics, sociology, public policy, and even psychology, and it applies those disciplines to public concerns and social problems (Scott, 2009). The definition of social policy is provided by Surender & Walker (2013): social policy can refer to "complex of concepts, principles, legislations, and methods in which it is possible to organise a more equitable distribution of individual and social resources among those people whose needs cannot be met by existing system because they are poor, too old or they are disabled" (Surender & Walker, 2013). An alternative definition described by Menachem (2015), social policy is a set of institutions and a range of activities concerned with production, distribution, and exchange of goods and resources for the satisfaction of human needs (Menachem, 2015). Cahill reader in social policy at the University of Holmwood (2005) has written book entitled "The Environment and Social Policy". In his book, he has defined social policy more broadly by arguing that environmental and sustainability issues are relevant to a lot of part of social policy now. It has happened mainly because of distributional consequences of environmental change (for example, resource depletion, climate change and widespread pollution) and its impact on people's living standards and well-being (Cahill, 2003; Karatayev et al., 2016; Koshim et al., 2018). Thus, Cahill (2003) has suggested that environmental policies have strong social components. The sustainability indicators, proposed and approved United Nations Environmental Programme, includes such indicators as opportunities for work, access to facilities and services, access to skills, knowledge, information and water access (Karatayev et al., 2017; Medetov et al., 2018). It can be said that social policy deals with things like social security, people's welfare, income maintenance, pensions, education policy, healthcare, social housing, equal opportunities and employment (Menachem, 2015). Most authors would also agree that social policy deals with social problems including law and order, defence, crime and criminal justice, environmental issues (Spicker, 2014; George & Page, 2004).

SOCIAL POLICY CONCEPTS

There are different perspectives and views on how social policy does work. First one, functionalism, where society is based on the value of consensus and all institutions in society should all work together to create more order and stability (Holmwood, 2005). In this context, social policies are developed by the government that should help society to run more smoothly. For example, educational policy should promote the idea of meritocracy; family policy should help society to carry out their functions more effectively, for example, an introduction of child benefits actually gave families more economic stability, thus, they could provide economic functions. The second, Marxists see society is divided by a conflict of interests between the ruling and working classes, the conflict between rich and poor (Booth, 1985). Therefore, they believe that social policy only benefits the ruling class. For example, an average worker in OECD countries is taxed a fairly large proportion of their income, while corporation tax is about five percent of all profits made, which is much significantly lower on the level of income tax. The third, New Right believes that the government should have minimal involvement in society and people should take responsibility for their own lives. A notable example of this kind of social policy approach has been the "Thatcherism". Former UK prime-minister, Margaret Thatcher believed that there is no such thing as society; people need to care about themselves and their own life. New Right are opposed to the provision of welfare support to families or in education or in healthcare service as it makes people dependent and creates more social problems (Ghaill, 1996). …

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