Academic journal article Journal of Entrepreneurship Education

The Influence of Educational Environment on the Development of Entrepreneurial Skills and Competencies in Students

Academic journal article Journal of Entrepreneurship Education

The Influence of Educational Environment on the Development of Entrepreneurial Skills and Competencies in Students

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Modern society is in need of professionally trained specialists possessing a wide range of entrepreneurial competencies and an ability to drive the economic growth in the country (Syam et al., 2018). Universities as educational institutions are the centre of development. Their mission is to provide enterprises and organizations of the country with highly qualified personnel with significant creative and intellectual potential in various fields, including business projects (David et al., 2017).

The development of entrepreneurial skills requires inner-directedness and initiative. Companies wishing to move in this direction should be able to organize and improve the way in which these skills are used. This will require flexibility (Bismala & Handayani, 2017). Hence, the practice of shaping entrepreneurial culture and literacy among university students in developed countries is of great interest. Graduates are a key to developing an entrepreneurial economy based on competitiveness, innovation, and creativity (Nwambam et al., 2018). The reality falls short of expectations, as there are very few people, who make up the workforce with a broader and deeper concept of knowledge. The modern world needs people with a wide range of skills and competencies, such as the ability to think and solve problems differently and with a creative touch (Dzisi et al., 2018).

In many countries, national education policies emphasize the relationship between education and the employment/labour market, as well as the importance of developing core competencies in students (Chen et al., 2015). In China, for example, due to a large number of start-ups, business schools trend toward "live education". Last year, students were invited to create their own trial business projects. These projects could be later implemented in the form of a startup. Such motivation encourages searching for effective ideas because it points directly to the opportunities in the field (Lin & Xu, 2017). Entrepreneurial competencies are often considered only an integral part of managerial competencies. Thus, management disciplines are included in entrepreneurship education programs. However, entrepreneurship takes place also outside the corporate sphere, which makes managerial competencies less significant in a specific context (Cincera et al., 2018).

Entrepreneurial competencies are divided into three broad groups:

1. Personal qualities and traits of a person.

2. Acquired skills and abilities to do something well in a particular field of activity.

3. Knowledge and experience, including facts and information that was learned through training, practice and observation; theoretical or practical understanding of the subject (Baczyńska et al., 2016).

The main entrepreneurial competencies are:

1. Seeking new business opportunities.

2. Assessing new business opportunities.

3. Initiative as a willingness to work faster, to do more and to perform beyond the prescriptions.

4. Decision-making, responsibility for the consequences.

5. Identifying and solving problems.

6. Creative thinking.

7. Effective communication with different partners.

8. Deal-making and negotiation.

9. Business networking.

The conceptual model of entrepreneurial competency stands on three pillars- "Ideas and Opportunities", "Resources" and "Into Action"-assuming that an entrepreneurial competence is the ability to turn ideas and opportunities into actions using resources. Resources can be represented by personal traits, such as self-awareness, self-efficacy, motivation and persistence, and by physical means, such as things used in production and money (Gümüsay & Bohné, 2018). A higher educational establishment exists to communicate the possibility of self-realization in entrepreneurship to students. With this goal in the set, education should be organized in such a way as to affect those areas of consciousness that are responsible for the formation and development of entrepreneurial knowledge and competencies (Aldoshina, 2018; Ruškytė et al. …

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