Academic journal article Global Economic Observer

Sino-Romania Relations under the Framework of Relations between China and CEECS Countries: A Perspective of Local Cooperation

Academic journal article Global Economic Observer

Sino-Romania Relations under the Framework of Relations between China and CEECS Countries: A Perspective of Local Cooperation

Article excerpt

1.Introduction

As the third country to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, friendship and companionship have been the fundamental characteristics of Sino-Romania relations in the past 70 years. Like president Xi Jinping pointed out that speaking of China-Romania relations, we will first think of "friendship" when he met with Prime Minister of Romania Victor-Viorel Ponta On September 2, 2014 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, 2014).Both of them take pride in the uninterrupted and continuously fruitful evolution of our relationship of friendship and cooperation (Doru Costea, 2016). One should watch the videos of Mao's warm welcoming to Nicolae Ceausescu during his visit to Beijing to get an idea of how intimate the relationship between the two countries was. Their ties were so closely linked that Romania even played a role in the rapprochement between USA and China, as Kissinger mentions in his book "On China" (Mihai Titienar, 2016). In the post-Cold War era, Romania has still been the most important partner in Central and Eastern Europe (hereinafter referred to as "CEECs") for China. Both sides have been keeping a high-level official visit every year; some years even twice (Liu Yong, 2009). The first visit of Chinese Prime Minister Li Peng in CEECs was made in Romania in July 1994. And, Romania has been the first country in CEECs to establish All-round Friendly and Cooperative Partnership with China, as the Joint Statement on the Establishment of China-Romania All-round Friendly and Cooperative Partnership was signed in June 2004.

In addition to bilateral attributes, Sino-Romanian relations also have obvious group or collective significance, namely, the relationship between countries in the socialist camp during the Cold War, the Sino-European relations and the relations between China and CEECs in the post-Cold War era. Therefore, to comparatively explore the Sino-Romanian relations in a larger international background can highlight its particularity and difference, and thus provide reference for the development of Sino-Romanian relations and the promotion of relations between China and CEECs and even Sino-European relations. As a matter of fact, this good tendency of the relations between the two countries has subtly changed in the past decade, especially fading from other countries such as Poland, Hungary, Serbia and the Czech Republic received more attention from China and even considered China's top partners in this region. Among them, the diplomatic and local cooperation of the sub-national governments is also an important part of international exchanges, providing another perspective for examining relations and exchanges between countries. Based on the practice of local cooperation, this paper analyzes the particularity of Sino-Romania relations and the space to be improved under "16+1 cooperation" and the Belt and Road Initiative through historical outlying and horizontal analogy.

2.Progress of Sino-Romanian Relations and Local Cooperation in the past 70 years

Since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1949, Sino-Romania relations are about to enter the 70th year. Sino-Romania relations have generally maintained a steady development. However, due to the change of their domestic situation and taking into account the shifting international environment, Sino-Romania relations have experienced some twists and turns, peaks, downhills, and stagnation. In general, Sino-Romania relations could be roughly divided into five stages. In the first phase, from the founding of New China to the early 1960s, Sino-Soviet relations were generally better. China and Romania and other Eastern European socialist countries maintained close exchanges and frequent inter-party exchanges. Exchanges between cultural and social group increased. They paid mutual attention to learn and exchange the experience of socialist revolution and socialist construction. In the second stage, from the early 1960s to the end of the 1970s with China implementing reform and opening up policy, due to the split and deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations, the relationship between China and Eastern European countries has diverged. …

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