Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

A Multi-Factorial Assessment of the 3-Minute Burpee Test

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

A Multi-Factorial Assessment of the 3-Minute Burpee Test

Article excerpt

Introduction

From a morphological perspective, morphological traits that relate to movement, as well as factors that influence movement, in humans are among the key objectives of kinanthropometry (Eston & Reilly, 1996). Kinanthropometry is a scientific discipline which is concerned with the measurement of individual variations in human motor abilities and body parameters (Beunen & Borms, 1990). The relationships between the structure of the human body and movement have been studied extensively for many years (Garber et al., 2011). The key morphological traits that influence human motor abilities include body size, body shape, the relationship between the length and muscular architecture of different body parts, the proportions of different tissue components (body composition analysis) and physical activity (PA) levels (Crecelius et al., 2008, Podstawski et al., 2013; Podstawski et al., 2014).

The relationship between body size and motor ability is usually easily discerned. An increase in somatic parameters, including body mass and height, contributes to absolute muscular strength (Vanderburgh & Laubach, 2008), but limits the development of physiological capacity, endurance and relative strength (Crecelius et al., 2008, Podstawski et al., 2016). Muscular strength is proportional to the physiological cross-sectional area, i.e. the square of the muscle's linear dimension, whereas body weight is a cubic function of height. Consequently, an increase in somatic parameters induces a much greater increase in mass, than in strength, respectively. Even a proportional increase in body height decreases strength relative to weight, which ultimately compromises physical fitness (PF). It has been purported that relative strength is limited by the ratio of fat body mass to lean body mass, which is particularly important in heavier individuals (Caruso et al., 2009). In view of the above theoretical assumptions, most empirical studies investigating the effect of morphological traits on PF have focused on the influence of body height and body mass on various components of PF (Mikulić & Ružić, 2008; Podstawski & Borysławski, 2012; Podstawski et al., 2012). The influence of other morphological traits, structures and tissue components has also been evaluated in body composition analyses in population studies (Gibson et al., 2008; Shafer et al., 2009). In recent years, the above factors have taken on a new significance due to the growing levels of overweight and obesity in both children (Milanese et al., 2010; Rohrer et al., 2008) and adults (Garber et al., 2011; Fletcher et al., 2001), as well as decreasing physical activity levels (Krombholz, 2011; Williams, 2001). Research into high-performance sports includes analyses of the somatic and physiological profiles of elite athletes (Dalleck L.,&Dalleck A, 2003; Mermier et al., 2000; Yoon, 2002), the ratio of fast-twitch to slow-twitch muscle fibers (Ahmetovet al., 2016; Lucia et al., 2015), cardiovascular function (Cunha et al., 2010; Byrne & Hills, 2002), hormonal (im)balance(Florini, 1987; Tasmectepligil et al., 2010) and the correlations between morphological parameters and training effects (trainability) (Kaufman & Schilling, 2007; Swain, 1994), which aim to identify physiological responses to exercise (Halverson, 1982). Fewer attempts have been made to determine physiological responses to extreme, hybridized exercise, such as strength endurance training, in individuals with relatively low levels of PA or a sedentary lifestyle.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the correlations between strength endurance, anthropometric features, body composition and physiological parameters in individuals with low or moderate levels of PA performing extreme exercise.

Material and Methods

Participants

The study involved 45 female and 51 male full-time students of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, (mean age of 20.05±1. …

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