Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Assessment the Relationship of Maternal Child Health Accessibility, Infant Mortality and Fertility

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Assessment the Relationship of Maternal Child Health Accessibility, Infant Mortality and Fertility

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

"Good health is one of the most important ingredients for a happy and productive life. And yet, many people do not have access to health care and live in conditions that spread disease" - Robert Alan Silverstein

Nearly 130 million of babies take their first breath in this world in each year. This moment make happy and joyful for the mothers and the people all around (Masoom, 2017). Each year nearly three million children die in their first month of life (Taylor, 2016); it's one of the darkest truths of the world. USAID child and maternal survival deputy coordinator, Taylor quoted that "Any Women need to able to access the care and services, she needed to ensure that her next pregnancy had a happier ending: a safe pregnancy, a successful delivery and a healthy baby".

Mother and child are two most vulnerable sections of the society ( Akhtar and Izhar, 2010; Lule, et al. 2005; Boopathy et al. 2014; Taneja, 2015; Jeyalakshmi et al. 2011; Shekhar et al. 2010; Mondal, 2003), therefore they need proper food and nutrition and better health services. Women who give birth need essential care before and after, for ensuring healthy lives of both mother and child (Singh, 2014). Health and wellbeing are important factors for sustainable development goal (SDGs). Improved MCH services (maternal health care services) stimulate to produce good healthy human resource for future and reduced poverty by increasing income and also promote the gender equality (PRB, 2014).

Madhya Pradesh is one the EAG (Empowered Action Group)states of India where highest IMR (52 per 1000 infants birth) recorded (SRS, 2014), this was the worse condition than the least developed country of Africa like Namibia (45.64), Malawi (48.01) and Haiti (49.43) in the same year (CIA Factsheet, 2014). High MMR (227 per 0.1 million mother) was also recorded in the state (AHS 2012-13) which was almost equivalent to the countries of Gabon (230), Papua New Guinea (230) (CIA Factsheet 2014). Above significant facts proved that Madhya Pradesh state was very poorin MCH status.

Out of the 51 districts of Madhya Pradesh, Sagar is one of the backward district in the context of MCH services where IMR was 70 (AHS 2013) which was higher than the country's average of 42 and it is also higher than some of the very least developed African countries like South Sudan (68.16), Zambia (66.62) and Burundi (63.44). MMR in Sagar district had recorded 322 which was higher than Pakistan (260) and Bangladesh (240) and also compare to Uganda (310), Swaziland (320) and Rwanda (340), etc. According to the above mentioned facts it is clear that the development and extension of MCH services are very poor in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh.

Access to healthcare services is a multidimensional complex system, which includes availability and its geographic accessibility, and financial accessibility (AlTaiar et al., 2010 and Blanford et al., 2012). On the other hand, efficiency of health centre has positive impact on MCH status and efficiency is based on performance of the human resource and proper utilization of fund (Som and Mishra, 2017). In India, MCH services are free of cost in public health centers that's why question of financial accessibility is not a major issue in the study area. On the other hand, spatial disparity of health centers and road accessibility has been long term concern of medical geographer (Joseph and Phillips, 1984 and Satia et al., 2013). The geographic location and allocation of health centers along the terrain pattern (Morphmetry), road connectivity with inhabitant and conditions and accessibility throughout the year are the key component in the utilization of maternal health care services (Fatih & EGRESI, 2013; Akhtar & Izhar, 2010 and Gage &Calixthe, 2006). Patients tend to use health facilities more if they are located closer to them than they are far away (Mizen, 2015). Low availability and accessibility of health centers and lack of road connectivity has stimulated the chance of home delivery which consequence increases of infant death. …

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