Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

Demographics as Predictors of Work Values in the Information Technology Sector

Academic journal article IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

Demographics as Predictors of Work Values in the Information Technology Sector

Article excerpt

Introduction

Examining work values of organizational members has recently caught the attention of many researchers (Elizur, 1984, and 1994; and Judge and Bretz, 1992). Work values are greatly influenced by social contexts and basic individual needs (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1977). There have been many deliberations on how values have transformed over the past years. Work values are considered significant for the evaluation of a workplace, situations at the workplace and the behavioral responses to those situations (Ros et al., 1999; and Gahan and Abeysekera, 2009). Work values signify what individuals can expect from work and act as a reference to assess the situations at the workplace (Dose, 1997). Values guide individuals in deciding how they should behave (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998) and are the foundation for human identity and behavior (Dose, 1999).

Judge and Bretz (1992) established that individuals were more inclined to choose jobs with value framework similar to their own value orientation. While studying the recruitment process in an organization, Adkins et al. (1994) found that many companies use the compatibility between the personal work values of the selectors and contenders as a selection tool. A positive relationship between work value fit and the recruitment decision was observed.

Information Technology (IT) industry in India has emerged as one of the largest employers in the past few decades as per NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies) IT Industry Fact Sheets 2009-2016. By FY2015, the Indian IT industry had employed a workforce of almost 3.5 million directly and over 10 million indirectly, emerging as the largest and most diverse private employer. Ever since its advent, it has been growing relentlessly, surviving even the tough times of economic recession. Lack of working age population in the developed economies and a significant long-term cost arbitrage indicates India's sustained cost competitiveness, helping India widen its leadership position in the global sourcing market. This has laid emphasis on the Indian IT organizations to harness the best of the talent pool and ensure that they continue with them for long. It brings with it emphasis on work values and how to synchronize the values of workforce with those of the organization for better organizational performance.

According to the report of National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) (2013-22), IT and ITeS sectors contribute 8% to the total GDP of India. The Cabinet in August 2014 approved the project 'Digital India', which aims to link gram panchayats through the Internet and transform India into a connected knowledge economy. By FY22, this sector is expected to provide direct employment to over 5.1 million people as shown in Figure 1.

From the above data, it is evident that the bright prospects of growth and advancements in the sector of IT have brought with them numerous opportunities which are attracting the new as well as big players in the field. To harness competitive advantage and differentiation, enterprises are now embarking on various forward-thinking approaches and new technologies. A popular approach is to put in more efforts by organizations to retain good talent and provide a good and congenial workplace environment. Several studies also establish that employee motivation can be credited to the work values. Work values are considered as motivators (Allport et a/., 1951) and possess the ability to motivate goal-directed behavior (French and Kahn, 1962). Elizur and Shye (1992) also concluded that work values and motivation are related but distinct. This brings the focus on enhancing work values of the organization and making sure the employees feel committed and participate in its effective functioning. It is imperative to make sure that committed employees who work arduously to achieve the organizational goals not only continue to be a part of the organization but also augment the good citizenship amongst others. …

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